Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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Market Structure is the one of the important elements to understand how market will function determine the behavior of firms in the market and the outcome that will be produced by the market. In economics term, market structure is the number, size, kind and distribution of buyers and sellers. According to Porter (1985), another tool to analyse a company's market structure, which includes the bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new competitors' entering into the market, threat of substitutes and intensity of competition. Four types of market types or structures are perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition.
Monopolistic competition is a mixture of perfect competition and monopoly, because they sharing some of the features of each. Competitive markets provide effective results, monopoly markets show risk losses. Monopolistic competition is somewhere in between, not as efficient as pure competition but less risk loss than a monopoly. In monopolistic competition market has three fundamental characteristic which is; many buyer and seller, seller offer a differentiated product and seller can easily enter or exit the market.
In monopolistic competition there are many firms in the market but not as many as in perfect competition market. In perfect competition, the existing of many buyer and seller influence the market price but in monopolistic competition seller cannot influence the market price. Monopolistic firms face non-price competition and firm have some power to control their own production price. This is because goods that are produced can be differentiated from one another. Therefore, even though firms raise the price, there are still customers will purchase the goods they produce. On the other hand, if firms reduce the price, sales can be increased but will not be able to attract all the customers from competitors. Monopolistic firms have the freedom to enter and exit the industry quite easily. This is because new firms can produce different types of goods. Usually new firms succeed in entering a monopolistic market by producing goods that are better in quality, they run promotions and also advertise. The personal computer industry in Malaysia can be said to be in the monopolistic competition market. There are many brands in the market such as Compaq, Acer, Apple, DELL, Toshiba and so on.
Lastly is Oligopoly market. Oligopoly is a market where there are a few sellers and buyers and firm are influence which one another. These markets are not monopoly because there is more than one seller, but there also not a monopolistic competitor either. In other word, there are a few firm dominate the market. For example, in the city there is many of restaurants, this situation we called as the 'market meals' under monopolistic competition. But, if we define as the 'Thai restaurant in the city' there may be one or two restaurant. So, this few market we categorize as an oligopoly market.
Others characteristic of oligopoly is goods that they produced are same or almost the same. So that, price are depends on the cooperation among the firm. They have the power to set high price toward their product. On the other hand, if firm not give the cooperation, the price in the market will be kept lower and less stable. There are big barriers to entry by new firms to join the oligopoly. This doesn't mean that new firms cannot enter the market, but those firms will face difficulties such as the need for huge capital investment and old firms that already have secure position in the market. In an oligopoly market, firm are not competed with their product price but normally by their advertisement. The good advertising will get customers who are loyal to their product and also can increase their sales. The objective of make an advertisement is to explain, persuade or influence their customer about the product and also can help to maintain their relationship. Example of oligopoly in Malaysai is petroleum industry. They are categorizing as an oligopoly because there are few firms that control the market such as Shell, Petronas, Esso and so on. This firm are competed among them to control market. They also depend on each other to decide the selling price.
Overall, we are discussing about four type of market structure which is perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition. The difference for each market structure can be determined by looking at characteristics such as the number of firms in the industry, the similarity or standardization of good they produced, the way firm decide the price, the barrier to enter and exit each market and the freedom to make decisions. By understanding each characteristic, we can understand the behavior of the firm.
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2 Index Objectives Introduction Illustration Narration Description Definition Process Analysis Classification Cause & Effect Compare & Contrast Argumentation Try Your Luck!
3 Objectives This module is designed to introduce students to the nine (9) different types of paragraphs used in English. By the end of the module, students should be able to identify the type of paragraphs presented to them.
4 Introduction There are nine types of paragraphs and essays. Through them we can accurately express our ideas in the correct context. Each type has a specific purpose and format, so it is important to know which you need to use.
5 Though all the them permit the use of opinion, it is often difficult for beginning students to accurately adapt them to do so. For that reason, it is strongly recommended that you leave your opinions for the that paragraph type specifically designed for it – argumentation.
6 The following types of essays each has an example with the topic sentence in white, developmental sentences in yellow, and the concluding sentence in green.
7 Illustration Illustration: Uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point. Giving examples is the basis of all good writing and speaking: You make a statement, and then you provide an example that shows what you mean. You must give enough examples to get the point across.
8 Good Illustration: 1. Makes a point. 2. Gives detailed and specific examples 3. Gives enough examples to get the point across.
9 Illustrative Paragraph Example Although they dont consider it stealing, many people regularly take things from their jobs. The most common items to disappear are pens and pencils that the employees almost unconsciously stuff into their purses and pockets. Over time, they may accumulate a lot of them. Another big item is all kinds of paper: pads of lined paper, little notepads, and file folders. Finally, one of the most significant ways people steal from their employers is by taking home samples of products the company makes. Employees think they are entitled to these products and even give them to friends. These examples many not seem like stealing, but the results are the same: extra costs to the company, which may result in lower pay raises.
10 Narration Narration. Is writing that tells a story of an event or an experience. Good narration: 1. Reveals something of importance. 2. Includes all the important events of the story. 3. Brings the story to life with a detailed account of what happened. 4. Presents events in a clear order.
11 Narration Paragraph Example My most embarrassing moment happened when I was working in a Mexican restaurant. I was a hostess working on a busy Friday night. As usual, I was wearing a blouse and a long Mexican skirt. While I was taking some menus to a table, one of the waiters accidentally stepped on the hem of my skirt. I didnt even feel it fall off, and I walked through the whole dining room in my slip! Almost every customer in the restaurant saw me without my skirt on!
12 Description Description creates a clear and vivid impression of the topic. Description translates your experience of a person, place, or thing into words, often by appealing to the physical senses.
13 Good description: 1. Creates a main impression-an overall effect, feeling, or image-about the topic. 2. Uses concrete, specific details to support the main impression. 3. Uses details that appeal to the five senses.
14 Descriptive Paragraph Example The subway is an assault on your senses. You walk down the steep, smelly steps on the subway platform. On the far right wall, a broken clock show that the time is four-thirty. You wonder how long it has been broken. A mother and her crying child are standing to your left. She is trying to clean dried chocolate syrup off the young childs face. Farther to the left, two old men are arguing about the most recent tax increase. You hear a little noise and see some paper trash roll by like a soccer ball. The most interesting thing you see while you are waiting for your subway train is a poster. It reads Come to Jamaica. Deep blue skies, a lone palm tree, and sapphire waters call you to this exotic faraway place.
15 Definition Definition Explains what a term means. It uses denotation (dictionary definition) or connotation (individual, personalized meaning). 1. Tells readers what term is being defined. 2. Presents a clear and precise basic definition. 3. Uses examples to show what the writer means. 4. Uses words and examples that readers will understand.
16 Definition Paragraph Example According to The American Heritage Dictionary, gossip is a trivial rumor of a personal nature, but this definition makes gossip sound harmless. At first, gossip might not seem so bad. One person tells a second person something about someone, and that second person tells a third person, and so on. The information passes from person to person. However, gossip is much more than just information and rumor. As the rumor continues, it grows and changes, People do not know all the facts, so they add information. As the gossip goes from one person to another, the damage continues, and the person who is the subject of the gossip cant do anything to answer or protect himself or herself. Because the potential damage may range from hurt feelings to a lost career, gossip is much worse than simply a trivial rumor.
17 Process Analysis Process analysis Either explains how to do something (so your readers can do it) or explains how something works (so your readers can understand it). They are usually written using chronological transitions like first, then, next, after that, and finally.
18 A good process analysis paragraph does the following: 1. Presents essential steps in a process. 2. Explains steps in detail. 3. Presents steps in a logical order.
19 Process Analysis Paragraph Example Eating a juicy taco is not easy-it requires following specific directions. First, you must be sure that you are wearing clothes that you dont mind getting dirty. Eating a taco while you are wearing expensive clothing is not a smart idea. The next thing that you should do is to decide if you want to eat the taco alone or in front of others. Eating a taco in front of someone you dont know very well, such as a new date, can be embarrassing. The last step is to plan your attack! It is a good idea to pick up the taco gently and carefully keep it in a horizontal position. As you raise the taco, slowly turn your head toward it and position your head at a twenty-degree angle. The last step is to put the corner of the taco in your mouth and bite. By following these simple directions, eating a taco can be a pleasant experience.
20 Classification Classification Organizes, or sorts, people or items into categories. A good classification paragraph: 1. Make sense of a group of people or items by organizing them into categories. 2. Uses useful categories. 3. Uses a single organizing principle. 4. Gives examples of what fits into each category.
21 Classification Paragraph Example Test questions generally fall into categories, depending on how they are answered: objective and subjective. The first kind, objective questions, have definite right and wrong answers. Multiple choice, matching, and fill-in-the-blank questions are objective. Although they can be tricky because of their wording, most students prefer objective questions. The answers are already there, and the student just has to choose the right one. Subjective test items, such as short- answer and essay questions, have no single correct answer. There is a range of possible responses. Students have to know the information in order to answer each question, and they have to present it in their own words. You can make a lucky guess on an objective question, but a subjective question doesnt offer much hope for a student relying on dumb luck.
22 Cause & Effect Cause & effect paragraphs explain what made an event happen and what occurred as a result. Good ones do the following: 1. Clearly distinguish between cause and effect. 2. Give clear and detailed examples of causes and/or effects.
23 Cause & Effect Paragraph Example Much to her surprise, lottery winner Sylvia Lee found that sudden wealth was a mixed blessing – the results were both good and bad. After her win was announced, she was constantly hounded by people who wanted to sell her something. She got an unlisted phone number, but the more aggressive salespeople just camped out on her doorstep. Another negative result was that people started treating her differently. I was shocked, said Lee. Everyone from the checkout clerk at the supermarket where Ive shopped for years to my next-door neighbor acted as though I had changed. Im still the same; Ive just got money now. Lee admits, though, that most of the changes have been positive. Its really a relief not worrying about money all the time. I actually went on my first shopping spree ever, and it was great. Lee expects that other new and unexpected results of her sudden wealth are yet to come, but shes not discouraged: so far, at least, the pluses far outweigh the minuses.
24 Compare & Contrast Compare & contrast paragraphs show similarities and differences among people, ideas, situations, or items. They are used to explain two subjects and help you decide between two options. They: 1. Uses subjects that have enough in common to be compared/contrasted. 2. Serves a purpose- either to help readers make a decision or understand subjects. 3. Presents several important, parallel points of comparison/contrast. 4. Arranges points in a logical organization.
25 Compare & Contrast Paragraph Example When they get lost while driving, women and men have very different ways to find the right route. As soon as a woman thinks she might be lost, she will pull into a store or gas station and ask for directions. As she continues on, is shes still not sure of the directions, she will stop again and ask someone else for help. Until they know they are on the right track, women will continue to ask for directions. In contrast, men would rather turn around and go home than stop and ask for directions. First, a man doesnt readily admit he is lost. When it is clear that he is, he will pull over and consult a map. If he still find himself lost, he will again pull out that map. Either the map will finally put the man on the right route, or – as a last resort – he will reluctantly stop at a store or gas station and let his wife go in and ask for directions. Many battles of the sexes have raged over what to do when lost in the car.
26 Argumentation Argumentation takes a position on an issue and offers reasons and supporting evidence to persuade someone else to accept or at least consider the position. Good argumentation paragraphs: 1. Take a strong and definite position on an issue or advises a particular action. 2. Give good reasons and supporting evidence to defend a position or recommended action. 3. Consider opposing views. 4. Have enthusiasm and energy from start to finish.
27 Argumentation Paragraph Example School uniforms should be mandatory for all students for a number of reasons. First, they make everyone equal. In this way, the rich kids are on the same level as the poor ones. In addition, getting ready for school can be much faster and easier. Many kids waste time choosing what to wear to school, and they are often unhappy with their final choices. Most important, some studies show that school uniforms make students perform better. Many people might say that uniforms take away from personal freedom, but I believe that the benefits are stronger than the drawbacks.
28 Try Your Luck! Reread the description example. Which two senses are not included in the description of the subway?description example Sight & SmellHearing & TasteTaste & Touch
29 Heres another one: Reread the classification example. Would true or false questions be considered objective or subjective?classification example ObjectiveSubjective
30 Lets try one last example. Reread the process analysis example. Does it tell you how to do something or how something works? process analysis example How to do somethingHow something works
31 Thanks for trying! See you next module! Paragraph examples taken from: Anker, Susan. Real Writing with Readings. Boston. Bedford/St. Martins Folse, Keith, A. Muchmore-Vokoun, and E. Vestri Solomon. Great Paragraphs. New York. Houghton Mifflen
One of the main contrasts of form in this piece is the shot type. Shot types are important to the composition of the video because they give the work a sense of variety. This piece uses extreme close up, wide shot, medium shot, two shot, as well as multiple camera angles. Extreme close ups are used in this piece to focus on an important aspect of the video. Close up shots fill the entire composition in order to focus on one main scene intensely. A wide shot is used when the piece is either transitioning into a new scene, or foreshadowing what is to come in an upcoming scene. Medium shots are closer than a wide shot, and is used to help the viewer become part of the action. An example of a two shot would be used when the shot has two people side by side or if the scene has dialogue. Finally, different camera angles are used at high, low and eye level depending on the scene.
Another main contrast of form is lighting. Three light sources were used in this piece, each with varying levels of brightness. The lights illuminate the set around the scene. In some scenes the lighting is dulled down, other times the light is closer to the camera which makes the scene brighter. Lighting is also used to put emphasis on depth and also to enhance focal points. Lighting not only helps to make important parts of the piece stand out it also enhances the composition.
In addition to camera angles and light, another prominent visual characteristic of this piece is the focus of lens. Some shots in the piece are intentionally focused and other parts are intentionally blurred, broken and are not focused. When the video goes from focused to blur it depicts a scene of sleeping and/or sickness. The use of focus of.
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. vibrant color, then it would create a higher contrast. Overall, making the images stand out from the font. On the contrary, the font size in the video was very different, and in order to catch the viewers eye there needed to be more consistency with font and color. When the viewer cannot read the information, it is useless and becomes a negative ascent to the entire project. To modify these scenes I could work more on verbal communication. There are no words being spoken to help drive home meaning. The viewer has to interpret from actions alone. The last change I would make is to not over complicate the video. The video has to many angles that become unimportant and confusing. For the next project I will simplify camera angles and lighting. I need to take a step back from this project, learn from it, and make stronger work that has more positives than negatives.
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