Using Ethos, Pathos and Logos in Advertisements
An advertisement is a form of public writing in which the author uses writing strategies as a way to catch the attention of a reader and to persuade that reader to purchase what he or she is promoting. In order to create an effective advertisement, the author relies on the product’s credibility, uses reasons to convince the reader to buy what he/she is promoting, and attempts to appeal to the reader based on emotion. A way in which this can be achieved is through using three components of writing known as ethos, pathos and logos. As an example to illustrate how these strategies can be used as an effective method of persuasion, I have chosen to analyze an advertisement produced by a travel agency. In the ad, the author’s attempt is to use logos and pathos as his primary means of persuasion but touches on all three components of writing as a method of luring the reader into choosing Texas as the primary choice for a vacation destination. The author’s intent is to rely on this location to represent the travel agency as a source for planning the vacation.
Using ethos is a way of appealing to the reader based on the credibility of the source in which the author is trying to promote. Credibility can be accomplished by using tactics to support reliability. First, the author attempts to establish credibility by relying on tradition and value. He accomplishes this in the advertisement by placing major emphasis on a man wearing a belt buckle. He states, "You look more closely. And see a grapefruit-sized rodeo championship belt buckle, dazzling in the sunlight. And you know at that moment, you must be in Texas" (McCALL p. 87). One may argue that the ad establishes the locatio.
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. pathos is used as the most persuasive form to support the text of the advertisement.
In analyzing the advertisement, it is clear that the author ties all these forms of writing together. In doing so, he hopes to gain the biggest audience by appealing to many different life styles. The author uses persuasion as a tactic, which is used to lure potential vacation hunters in to choosing his place of choice. He presents all forms of writing strategies (ethos, pathos, and logos) in the advertisement with the most concentration on logos and pathos. The author feels that the best way to persuade the audience of choice is to state the facts in the text, and then support those facts by appealing to the emotions, which is accomplished in the picture. In some cases, the author only selects one category of writing, which all depends on what he or she is trying to promote.
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Home / Ethos, Pathos & Logos – Modes of Persuasion (Aristotle)
Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker [ethos]; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind [pathos]; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself [logos]. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker’s personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.
–Aristotle 1356a 2,3
The mode of persuasion “Ethos” deals with the character of the speaker. The intent of the speaker is to appear credible. According to Aristotle there are three prequisites that are necessary to appear credible:
Ethos is portrayed during the performance (actio). Originally, actio encompassed voice, gesture, facial expressions, proxemics, body language and movement. Later this was seperated in actio and pronuntiatio, whereas the first is about the bodily eloquence and the second the actual vocal lecture.
The ethos of the speaker is transmitted via his self-portrayal, this mostly about nonverbal and paraverbal (vocal elements – tone, pitch, etc. ) factors. If the speaker uses certain aspect consciously or unconsciously is usually irrelevant for the analysis, since the result and not the intention is the aim of a rhetorical analysis. Thus, there is no general “good” or “bad” in self-portrayal and impression management, cause each action must be interpreted in the proper context of the situation/speech. As a result the words “functional” and “dysfunctional” are more appropriate, when it comes down to analysing once performance.
The influencing factors for ethos encompass elements such as clothes, vocabulary, slang and other social aspects like rank, popularity, etc. These factors effect – according to the situation – the appearance and reception of the speaker. Additionally, the speaker can use statements to position himself, he can reveal social hierarchies, also he can show preferences and distastes, etc.
There is a more profound article on ethos. which goes into further detail and includes two different self-portrayals.Pathos – Emotional Influence of the Speaker on the Audience
Pathos encompasses the emotional influence on the audience. The goal of each speech is to persuade the audience, therefore it is necessary to put the audience in the appropriate emotional states. Aristotle noted that is of importance that each speaker knew, which emotions exists, how and under which circumstances the can be elicited:
The Emotions are all those feelings that so change men as to affect their judgements, and that are also attended by pain or pleasure. Such are anger, pity, fear and the like, with their opposites. We must arrange what we have to say about each of them under three heads. Take, for instance, the emotion of anger: here we must discover (1) what the state of mind of angry people is, (2) who the people are with whom they usually get angry, and (3) on what grounds they get angry with them.
–Aristotle 1378a 1,9
The public speaker has several possibilities to elicit emotions in the audience. Yet, it is crucial that there is a basic knowledge about the audience. Typical high emotional topics are value and belief systems, since these topics can vary from audience to audience, it is crucial to know the audience. There are also certain techniques and presentation styles that create or enhance emotions, which reduces the ability of the audience to be critical. Take as an example the technique of storytelling, people react and absorb stories differently than an university lecture style speech.
The aim of pathos is to reduce the audience’s ability to judge. One possibility to achieve this is due to the correct use of figures of speech. These figures can be used to put certain content and arguments in fore- or background. This allows the speaker to increase the effectiveness of the delivery, by either underlining the strong parts or minimize the weak parts.
There is a more profound article on pathos. which goes into further detail.Logos – Content and Argumentation
Logos is the appeal towards logical reason, thus the speaker wants to present an argument that appears to be sound to the audience. It encompasses the content and arguments of the speech. Like ethos and pathos the aim is to create an persuasive effect, thus the apparent is sufficient:
Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.
–Aristotle 1356a 2,3
For the argumentation the arguments, argument schemes, the different forms of proof and the reasoning are of special interest. There are two different forms of proofs: the natural and the artificial/technical proof. Natural proofs are those that are based on given data like documents, testimonies, etc. The artificial/technical proof are those that are created with combination of information (hints, examples, etc.) and the art of logic.
There is a more profound article on logos. which goes into further detail.Bibliography & Links
2 What Are They? Ethos, Pathos and Logos are modes of persuasion used to convince audiences. They are also referred to as the three artistic proofs (Aristotle coined the terms) and are all represented by Greek words. They explain how rhetoric functions.
6 Examples From Literature: Harriet Jacobs Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Ethos: “Reader, be assured this narrative is no fiction. I am aware that some of my adventures may seem incredible; but they are, nevertheless, strictly true. I have not exaggerated the wrongs inflicted by Slavery; on the contrary, my descriptions fall far short of the facts.”
7 Examples From Literature Continued Pathos: “On one of these sale days, I saw a mother lead seven children to the auction-block. She knew that some of them would be taken from her; but they took all. I met that mother in the street, and her wild, haggard face lives to-day in my mind. She wrung her hands in anguish, and exclaimed, "Gone! All gone! Why don't God kill me?" I had no words wherewith to comfort her. Instances of this kind are of daily, yea, of hourly occurrence.”
8 Examples From Literature Continued Logos: “Northerners know nothing at all about Slavery. They think it is perpetual bondage only. They have no conception of the depth of degradation involved in that word, SLAVERY; if they had, they would never cease their efforts until so horrible a system was overthrown.” -Woman Of North Carolina.
Ethos pathos logos essayEthos pathos logos essay
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