These are problems at the end of the chapter. I encourage you to do all the problems within the chapters. DUE dates are on the course calendar. They will be collected and graded.
Chapter 1: 35, 36, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 63, 70, 73, 80, 83, 85, 92, 99, 101
Chapter 2: 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41, 44, 46, 47, 48, 53, 56, 60, 64, 65, 67, 70, 72, 76, 82, 84, 86, 87
Chapter 3: 27, 29, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 45, 51, 53, 59, 61, 65, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 91, 94
Chapter 4: 27, 29, 31, 35, 37, 41, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 82, 85, 87
Chapter 5: 44, 45, 47, 51, 53, 57, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 83a,d, 85d, 87, 89, 91, 95, 97, 102
Chapter 6: 29, 34, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 48, 49, 51, 54, 56, 57, 58, 63, 61, 65, 66, 81, 83a-e, 85a,b,c,e,f
Chapter 7: 37, 36, 39c,b, 43, 45, 49, 53, 57, 61, 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 85, 87, 88, 89, 95, 97, 99, 101, 103, 105, 106, 107
Chapter 8: 31, 37, 41, 44, 57, 59, 63, 65, 67, 68, 73, 74, 77, 82, 85, 87, 89, 95, 98, 107, 113
Chapter 9: 41, 43, 47, 49, 51, 57, 67, 69, 71, 75 (in the table estimate to/from pH, calculate the rest), 79. 87, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 101, 104
Chemistry 121 (8-8:50 M T W F in SL 120) General Chemistry
Dr. Jeffrey A. Hurlbut Spring 2014
Office Hours, CB 388:M,W,F 10:00-11:00
Office Number: (360) 650-2242 I may not be able to answer your calls if you have an out-of-area number.
Final Exam: Tuesday, June 10, 2014 - 1:00 to 3:00 pm in SL 120
Course Material Locations: Lecture Notes, Quizzes, Labs, and Assignments
Lecture: - SL120, 8:00 - 8:50 M T W FAttendance Required
Five Wet Labs:CB 210 (1st wet lab for my lecture starts 4/15/ - 4/17/2014)
- Our labs will start the 3rd week. Five labs are wet labs in CB 210 & four labs are online - note the due dates given in Sapling.
- Lab requirements: Attendance, Goggles & Lab Coat (purchase both early in bookstore), Passed Safety Quiz, Access to Sapling.
- Make up labs are only given for pre-arranged absences, and you must contact Dr. Dietrich, [email protected]. 360-650-4071, CB 270. Read our Missed Lab Policy at:
cobalt.chem.wwu.edu/labs/Other/General Chemistry Missed Lab Policy.pdf- You must drop if you: miss the first wet lab; miss two labs; or fail the lab safety quiz (deadline = 12 noon Thursday, 4/10/2014).
- Prelab (wet) deadlines are
11:50 pm the day before your wet lab.
Four Online Labs & Graded Homework: Available through Sapling. Pay attention to deadlines which are given in Canvas & Sapling.
Final Exam: 1:00 – 3:00 pm; Tuesday, June 10, 2014; SL 120
Laboratory Safety QuizMust drop course if do not pass before 12 noon 4/10.
- A TUTORIAL, information, and the quiz are available on the Web at: cobalt.chem.wwu.edu/SafetyQ/GCqlink.htm or at www.saplinglearning.com.
- The login is your student ID without the “W” and without the dash & post-dash #. Password = last two ID digits & first two letters of last name. ie for Jon Link, W00192204-11, the password = 04Li (Also use this login for post-lab questions).
- You have 30 minutes to complete the lab quiz; time starts when you first enter the quiz. If you do not pass, then you can take it again; however, the passing grade is higher for the other tries. 1st try until 5pm 4/3 (80%); 2nd try 5pm 4/3 to 5pm 4/7 (84%); 3rd try 5pm 4/7 to 12 noon Thursday, 4/10 (88%).
- Pass this lab safety exam well before the deadline (12 noon, Thursday, 4/10/2014) in order to remain in the class. Pass early since 1) no excuses for not passing will be accepted, & 2) you must drop if you do not pass.
Chapter 1 – Chemistry and Measurement; Sapling: practice, math, HW1
Chapter 2– Atoms, Molecules, and Ions; Sapling: HW 2
Exam #1 & Quiz #1 over chapters 1 & 2
Chapter 3 – Calc. with Chem Formulas & Equations; HW 3, practice
Chapter 4 – Chemical Reactions; HW 4
Exam #2 & Quiz #2 over chapters 3 & 4
Chapter 7 – Quantum Theory of the Atom; HW 7, practice
Chapter 8 – Electron Configurations and Periodicity; HW 8
Chapter 9 – Ionic and Covalent Bonding; HW 9, practice
Chapter 10 – Molecular Geometry & Bonding Theory; HW 10, practice
Final Exam – Tuesday, 6/10/2014, 1-3 pm. It covers all material
Hurlbut Chemistry 121 Laboratory Dates
Date(Labs in CB 210)WET LABS- Prelabs due
11:50 pm day before
4/15-4/17- Fundamental Measurements(15 pts)
4/29-5/1-Copper Chemistry(15 pts)
5/13-5/15- Analysis of Vinegar(15 pts)
5/27-5/29-Types of Bonding & Chem. Reactions(15 pts)
6/3-6/5 - Molecular Models Lab (2nd half of lab time) (10 pts)
DueDates (No exceptions)ONLINE LABS– Found in Sapling
4/11- Dimensional Analysis(10 pts)
5/2- Stoichiometry(10 pts)
5/16- Electrical Conductivity(10 pts)
5/30- Spectroscopy(10 pts)
Homework: Two types of homework: Text (not graded) and Online (graded).
Text:In the lecture notes, I suggest a group of problems to work. Finish these by the end of that lecture series and be prepared to ask any questions on these during the lecture. These will not be turned in.
Online: After setting up your account at www.saplinglearning.com then you have access to the graded HW problems. You have three tries per question (loose 20% per miss). Each assignment has a firm due date, and no exceptions will be allowed; you can use one at a WWU computer lab such as CB 384 or your own if it is reliable. Start and complete each assignment well before the due date & time. There are built in helps. You also have access to a Sapling chemist if you have questions: [email protected]
Notes & Recommendations
2 Exams - 40% 2 Quizzes – 4% Final Exam - 30% Lab - 14 % HW - 12 %
- Exam questions will cover lecture, text, and homework material. A few lab questions might be included in the tests. The questions will be approximately 70% multiple choice and 30% work out.
- I will carefully review final course grades near the cut-off ranges.
- Please feel free to interact with me any time about course questions.
- Exam dates will be announced one to two weeks in advance – they will usually be
one week after we finish the corresponding chapters.
- Play careful attention to the numerous deadlines in this course.
Course Objectives (prefix each with. “Students will”)
1. develop an understanding of the structure of atoms and the development of modern atomic theory.
2. use the concepts of bonding and the electronic structure of the atom to predict the three-dimensional shapes and electron distributions within molecules.
3. understand the chemical behavior of ionic and molecular substances in aqueous solution.
4. use information embedded in the periodic table to predict the chemical properties and electronic structure of elements.
5. correctly use nomenclature, symbolism and vocabulary to communicate chemical ideas.
6. correctly use mathematical models and methods to describe a chemical event quantitatively.
Chem 121 Due Dates for first 2 weeks.(Sapling & Canvas will also have due dates)
M 4/7 11:50 pm (Sapling) Practice & Review
R 4/10 12:00 Noon (Sapling) Lab Safety Quiz
F 4/11 11:50 pm Sapling Lab – Dimensional Analysis
T 4/15 11:50 pm (Sapling) HW 1
4/15-4/17 Night before Wet Lab – prelab & copy procedure
Chemistry 121IN: Chemistry and Society
These files are provided for students in Chemistry 121IN, an integrated lecture and laboratory course at Pima Community College for the 2014 - 2015 academic year.
Lecture and Class Information:
CHM 121IN Syllabus for Fall 2014 This syllabus includes the list and dates of all laboratory experiments.
Notes on metric system, chemical symbols, formulas, nomenclature, chemical equations, and more will be found in the General Chem Survival Manual section.
This is an integrated class that combines both the lecture and the laboratory.
Passing the course requires attendance to class, completion of assignments, quizzes, exams, and all aspects of the laboratory experiments including any pre-lab reports, and laboratory reports.
A major requirement of this course is writing two short reports, each being 5 pages in length, double spaced. Details of these reports are given in the course syllabus and also on this web page.
Course Notes and Reference Material:
The Periodic Table If you are looking for information on any chemical element, its properties, or its uses, use this link to the Web Elements Periodic Table by Mark Winter, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Sheffield. Probably the best periodic table on the Internet, it provides a wealth of information about the elements.
Visual Elements Periodic Table This is a link to the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) interactive periodic table. Elements can be highlighted by their groups, blocks and periods. There is an abundance of information about each element and it will continue to evolve with additional information.
ChemSpider If you are searching for information on chemical compounds, their structure or other information, ChemSpider links together compound information across the web, providing free text and structure search access of millions of chemical structures. With an abundance of additional property information, tools to curate and use the data, and integration to a multitude of other online services, ChemSpider is the richest single source of structure-based chemistry information available online. ChemSpider is provided free by the Royal Society of Chemistry
Many of the references listed below are links to other web sites. These links, or the information referred to, may change when web sites are updated. Some web sites may be deleted by sponsoring organizations over time. Please advise your instructor if a web site is no longer accessible.
The Origins of Chemistry
Math Review includes significant figures and scientific notation
Math Review Algebraic operations you should be able to do before starting a general chemistry course
Math Answers Answers to the Math Review problems
Measurement, and Temperature
Metric System The SI system with a short history of measurement
Temperature Temperature measurement with a short historical background
Absolute Zero This is a program from NOVA (split into 10 chapters). The program presents a history of temperature measurement up to the modern methods of trying to reach absolute zero. This is a link to the NOVA website.
The Elements and the Periodic Table
Element Symbols A historical approach to modern element symbols
Forging the Elements How were the elements formed? This is a segement from the NOVA program Origins: Back to the Beginning . Watch the entire program (split into 6 chapters) or just select the Forging the Elements chapter. This is a link to the NOVA website.
The Periodic Table This is a link to the Web Elements Periodic Table by Mark Winter, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Sheffield. Probably the best periodic table on the Internet, it provides a wealth of information about the elements. This is the place to look for information about the chemical elements.
Notes on the Periodic Classification This is a PDF form of the PowerPoint lecture used in class
Electron configurations This is an applet for electron configurations from The ChemCollective at Carnegie Mellon
Island of Stability A video from NOVA explaining how heavy elements are made. This is a link to the NOVA website
The Elements A song by Tom Lehrer recored in 1959 and originally publishedon the recording An Evening Wasted with Tom Lehrer. This version comes from HallofWisdom in Seattle
Are We Alone? Life in the Universe
Universe 101 This is NASA website for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe that launched June 2001 to make fundamental measurements of cosmology -- the study of the properties of our universe as a whole. This link is direct to the Understanding the Evolution of Life in the Universe page. Explore the other sections in the Universe 101 portion of the website as well as the rest of the entire website, This is a well written resource.
Life in the Universe This is the text of a lecture by Stephen Hawking on the Professor Stephen Hawking website. Read other lectures on the website.
Twinkle, twinkle Little Star A history of telescopes, spectroscopy and stellar chemistry by Mike Sutton from Chemistry World, December 2009
Reading Between the Lines An article by Jon Cartwright about spectroscopy for investigating stars and planets, from Chemistry World, December 2009
Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature
Formula Writing Includes nomenclature of inorganic compounds.
Additional Tables for Formula Writng These tables were supplied by Matthew Medeiros of Pima Community College.
NaCl by Kate and Anna McGarrigle. Kate was failing her chemistry course and came up with this while studying for her exam.
Organic Compounds, Organic Chemistry, and Petroleum
Notes on Organic Chemistry This is a PDF file of the PowerPoint presentation used in class
Petroleum This is a link to the Wikipedia page on petroleum. This provided a good overview of petroleum, petroleum resources, production, and some history and uses.
How Oil Drilling Works This is a link to the howstuffworks web site on drilling for petroleum.
The Athabasca Tar Sands This is a PDF file of the PowerPoint presentation used in class
The Trans-Alaska Pipeline This is a PDF file of the PowerPoint presentation used in class
Product Safety and Toxicology
Product safety standards This is a link to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commision
Toxicology basics This is a PDF of a PowerPoint presentation Principles of Toxicology by Elizabeth Casarez of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.
Notes on Toxicology basics These are a PDF file of the Principles of Toxicology (BIOC 597c) by Elizabeth Casarez of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.
Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Reactors
Notes on Nuclear Chemistry This is a PDF form of the PowerPoint lecture used in class
The following are links to web sites for natural radiation decay series.
Natural Decay Series: Uranium, Radium and Thorium. From the Argonne National Laboratory Environmental Science Division.
Natural Radioactive Series by Yevgeniy Miretskiy. Select the decay series and the time step, then animate. This uses a bar graph to show the concentrations of the major isotopes formed in the decay series change over time. Additional data on half-lives and numbers of atoms are given on the right of the graph. Note: For long half-lives, select a longer time step.
Radioactivity in Nature
Radioactivity in Nature This is a link to Idaho State University's Radiation Information Network. This site categorizes over 60 radionuclides found in nature.
Types of nuclear reactors This link gives a very brief overview of the three main types of fission reactors.
Nuclear power reactors This is a link to the World Nuclear Association web site.
Nuclear reactor types This is a link to a publication from the Institution of electrical Engineers.
Columbia Generating Station Nuclear Power Plant Tour. A video showing how a boiling water reactor generating station works.
The following are links to information on the Biological Effects of Radiation
Nuclear Radiation and Its Biological Effects. This is a link to an excerpt from the book No Immediate Danger, Prognosis for a Radioactive Earth, by Dr Rosalie Bertell
The following are articles from The American Heritage Magazine of Invention and Technology
The Atomic Cannon. The largest and heaviest artillery piece ever ordered by the Army helped to end a war.
The Beauty of the Bomb. An essay examining one person’s fascination with the bomb.
The Plan to Nuke Panama. The plan to construct a new Panama canal
Our Nuclear Heritage
Albert Einstein's Letters to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Leo Szilard, a Hungarian physicist who left Germany after Hitler's rise to Power, feared that Germany's nuclear scientist might be able to make a "nuclear bomb". He had Albert Einstein sign a letter to President Roosevelt which explained the possibility of a nuclear bomb and urged that the United States not allow a potential enemy to develop it first.
Scientists with a secret An article by Spencer R. Weart from Physics Today, February 1967. This tells the story of an informal agreement betweenf atomic scientists and the publishers of scientific journals to withold publication of information related to thefission of uranium and the production of plutonium until after World War II.
Physics and Nuclear Arms Today This is a link to Google Books containing readings from Physics Today, 1976 to 1989, edited by David Hafemeister, containing selected reprints of articles on the effects of nuclear weapons, nuclear testing, nuclear defense, and nuclear proliferation
How Nuclear Bombs Work. This is a link to the howstuffworks web site.
The Story of the Atomic Bomb. 1934-1945, by James Richard Fromm. This is a link to the web site. This article is well illustrated with photos of most of the people involved.
US Nuclear Tests. Nuclear tests from July 1945 to September 1992 – with web links.
Let's Make a Thermonuclear Device. In November 2001, British reporters searching through an abandoned "al-Qaida safe house" in Kabul, Afghanistan, found this document, and reported that they'd stumbled upon the terrorists' nuclear intentions. This information was published in a Nov. 15 article in the Times of London. In the article, journalist Anthony Loyd wrote that next to "physics and chemistry manuals devoted to molecular matter," he discovered this document on how to make a thermonuclear device. Marc Abrahams, a former editor of the Journal of Irreproducible Results, where the article originally appeared, said "Either there's one guy in the Taliban who had a sense of humor, or everyone was downloading everything on the Net that had the word 'thermonuclear' in it."
NOTE: My class presentation on nuclear chemistry includes a discussion on the atomic bomb and some of its applications (or misapplications), along with schematics of the two bombs used by the United States at the end of World War II. I will not use this web site as a forum to discuss whether it was right or wrong to unleash nuclear weapons on the world - that's history, and it's up to each individual to research the reasons for that ultimate decision. Much of the destruction and injury caused by the atomic bombs was suppressed by the U.S. government and classified until 1968, but still, only a small amount of material is publicly available in bits and pieces on the Internet. Remenber, only one country has ever used nuclear weapons in warfare. Few people, alive today, have witnessed the potential destruction that a single atomic bomb can produce. It is my belief that nuclear weapons must never be used again, for any reason, and that there should be a world-wide ban on all nuclear weapons.
The Atomic Cafe This is a link to a film I show in class. The Atomic Cafe shows historical footage from the Trinity test, through the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the atomic testing, post WWII propaganda, and footage from troop briefings and newsreels. This is a sometimes comical and often chilling about the cold war paranoia in the U.S. Normally, I interupt the film several times to add additional information not available in this film or other documentaries listed below. Even without the additional information, this is an important part of our atomic heritage. If the link, above, is not active here is a second link to the film on youtube (it may be preceded by an advertisement)
What follows are links to three films about Hiroshima and Nagasaki:
A Tale of Two Cities. presented by the U.S. War Department is a Government film using Hiroshima and Nagasaki Stock Footage. It is presented as a newsreel-type of film. (To play, click on the balloon on the play bar on the bottom of the screen.)
Hiroshima, Hirohito, & the Rising Sun, Part 1. Hiroshima is a film by Rhawn Joseph, PhD. Assembled from pre-bombing footage, atomic testing footage, and post-bombing footage.
Hiroshima-Nagasaki, August,1945. Part 1 and Part 2 is a compilation of silent black-and-white film footage of the ruins of Hiroshima and Nagasaki shot by Japanese cameramen of the Nippon Eiga She documentary unit before the U.S. occupation forces arrived in Japan. This halted by the occupation, then ordered resumed under its supervisions. Later all footage was impounded, classified SECRET, and moved to the United States.
In 1968, Columbia University, learning about this material, applied to the U.S. Department of Defense for access to it. Apparently a declassification had recently taken place, and Columbia was permitted to duplicate the surviving 2 hours and 45 minutes of footage. The result was Hiroshima-Nagasaki, August 1945, the most widely shown film of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki holocaust, documenting the meaning of nuclear war. Hirishoma-Nagasaki, August 1945 (16 minutes, black and white) was produced by Erik Barnouw for the Columbia University Press and is available for purchase at The Robert Flaherty Film Seminar http://www.flahertyseminar.org/?sb=5&mb=4. The complete 30-minute film is titled "The Case of the A-Bomb Footage," and includes an introduction by Erik Barnouw, which traces the history of long-suppressed footage.
The Atmosphere and Weather
Our Atmosphere Notes on the atmosphere
El Nino and Climate Prediction. What is El Niño and how does it affect our weather?
El Nino This is a link to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) El Nino page. There are additional links to explanations of what is El Nino, its status and discussions of this phenomenon
La Nina This is a link to the NOAA La Nina page. This is one of the best places to get general information, forecasts, and impact information.
Our Changing Climate. The Earth’s Climate, what causes changes and where do we go from here?
Our Ozone Shield. What is the ozone layer and what factors affect it?
The Ozone Layer This is a link to the NOAA page on the ozone layer. Click on links for more information.
How to name CFCs. This is a link to the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) on how to name CFCs. This organization is the primary climate-change data and information center of the U.S. department of Energy (DOE). Search this site for additional climate change information.
Weather on Demand. Can cloud-seeding really control the weather?
Warmer Oceans, Stronger Hurricanes. An article by Kevin E. Trenberth about how global warming affects hurricanes. From Scientific American. July 2007.
Acid Rain This is a link to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) web site on acid rain. Click on links for more information.
Explore the World of Earth Science This is a link to investigations and visualizations designed to accompany Earth Science. a high school textbook authored by Spaulding and Namowitz and published by McDougal Littell. The Web site was developed by TERC, a non-profit educational research and development firm in collaboration with McDougal Littell.
Science Fiction materials will be distributed in class on a CD-ROM. The CD-ROM contains bibliographies, short stories, and related science articles. The science fiction bibliographies are on this web site under Science Fiction Science fiction stories and related articles are on the CD-ROM
Science Fiction Reading List for Spring 2013This is the list of short stories on the CD-ROM that we will be discussing in class.
Technovelgy This is a link to the Technovelgy web site which lists inventions, technology and ideas of science fiction writers.
Center for the Study of Science Fiction This is a link to The J. Wayne and Elsie Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction at the University of Kansas. In addition to a large amount of information, it has links to other resources.
Sci-Fi Science is a web site created by a group of professional scientists to explore the true science unerlying popular science fiction. There is a lot of interesting material on this web site.
AboutSF The Educational outreach arm of theCenter for the Study of Science Fiction and is a joint-project of thescience Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America and the Science Fiction Research Association. Among the information on this web site are reader's guides and teacher resources.
The Best Science Fiction Stories Ever Written This is a link to a web site by Rusty with an extensive listing of science fiction short stories, a description of each story, and where to find them.
Nanotechnology Takes Off A QUEST video, Part of A KQED Multimedia Series Exploring Northern California Science, Environment and Nature
What is Nanotechnology This is a link to the web site of CRN, the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology
Introduction to Nanotechnology This is a link to the nanowerk website. This is a good multipage article on nanotechnology (An outline of the article's contents is on the left-hand side of the page.)
How Nanotechnology Works This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site
The Nano Song by the Sounds of Science a group of graduate students and alumni at UC Berkeley. Nanotechnology can be fun.
Introduction to Electrochemistry. This is the PDF version of the PowerPoint presentation used in Class
How Batteries Work This is a link to the howstuffworks web site
Energizer Learning Center has a site that tells about batteries, history, battery care, battery comparison, and some battery experiments.
Battery University is a site sponsored by Cadex Electronics Inc. in Vancouver BC. The site contains information about battery chemistries, best battery choices and ways to make your battery last longer.
How Fuel Cells Work This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site on Fuel Cells
Fuel Cells This is a link to the NOVA site that has a 14 minute video on fuel cell cars and a number of discussion points on fuel cells
The Online Fuel Cell Information Resource This is a link to a web site from the Breakthrough Technologies Institute (BTI), a non-profit [501(c)(3)] independent, educational organization that identifies and promotes environmental and energy technologies that can improve the human condition
Laboratory Experiments and Activities:
The laboratory safety and procedures book, The General Chemistry Laboratory Survival Manual. is available in the college bookstore. The laboratory experiments are available here for downloading. (These are PDF files and require acrobat reader.)
Read the experiments before coming to class. If you prefer to work from your computer or tablet, you will still need to download data pages for your lab reports.
Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, 7th Ed. This is a link to the publication by the American Chemical Society Joint Board-council Committee on Chemical Safety
Safety Test Questions These questions are similar, but not exactly the same, as those asked on the safety test. The safety test contains 35 questions.
The Safety Song by the Sounds of Science a group of graduate students and alumni at UC Berkeley. Safety doesn't have to be boring.
Graphing with Excel A LabWrite Resources tutorial on graphing from NC State University
Emission spectra of elements: These are links to web sites for emission spectra of elements. Note: Academic websites may only be available for limited time periods.
A periodic table from University of Oregon. Click on an element to see the spectrum. Choose between absorption and emission spectra.
Quicktime movies from Beloit College. Click on the absorption, emission, or combination spectrum shown to initiate spectra. Move the slide on the bottom of the spectrum to select elements. Note: Apple Quicktime needed (a free download)
Spectroscopy: Element Identification and Emission Spectra. Contains an explanation of spectra with both selected flame spectra and element spectra following the explanation. This material was prepared by Dr. Walt Volland, Bellvue Community College.
Spectra of Gas Discharges by Joachim Koppen, University Strasbourg, France.