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Brody Contreras

4/16/13

The Road Homework

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1. I agree. If modern civilization were to end, I think that man kind would slowly die away after it’s fall because modern man is not capable of surviving the harsh Environment of the world. We will especially fall due to the lack of resources and will kill each other off for food. 2. I disagree strongly. Many people are evil people because they enjoy bringing pain to others and are selfish, thus worrying about only their own needs and not for those around them. 3. I disagree. Nature is needed because it is what the earth physically is made of. The earth would die if nature were taken away. I think that nature keeps our sanity too in this world that is slowly depleting Mother Nature of its resources. 4. I disagree and agree because some people like to live a hermit like live while others are more social. I personally would like to live in society because I do not like to be alone for long periods of time as most people do not. End of the novel discussion questions:

1. McCarthy’s prose style somewhat annoyed me. I was often lost in what was happening because certain ideas felt disconnected. I do not find it to be poetry and am more annoyed by it overall. 2. McCarthy chose to not give the man a name because the man is not who he was before civilization fell; he is a survivor and nothing more. This act of not naming characters makes us look at the characters the same as the other survivors in the book. 3. I think that McCarthy is able to keep the world a scary place by constantly bombarding the characters with new problems such as weather, health, and marauders. I think the part where they describe the man who was burnt from getting struck by lightning was the most vivid scene of the whole book. I think that the most horrifying thing in this post apocalyptic world is the marauder because of how ruthless they are. 4. Nuclear warfare could be a huge reason why the world is covered in ash or the world could have caught on fire. On the road there are no men who live by god because many don’t know about him and also, it is difficult to live an honest life in such harsh environments. 5. The boy’s mother commits suicide because she is afraid of what the world will be after civilization is over and she thinks that they will inevitably be killed and eaten. 6. The fire within him is the ability to bring kindness in a world that lacks such a thing. It’s crucial that they don’t let it die because if they do, then the world will be full of only evil people. 7. I think that his depiction of a post apocalyptic world is very to point. There are many people who refrain from breaking the law only because they don’t want to be incarcerated. When those rules are lifted, there are no restraints. I think that civilization is slowly killing the world to a point where we wont be able to live off of it. 8. They are unlike the bad guys because they do not hunt people down and eat them but they are bad guys in the sense that they will kill another man in order to protect themselves. He is saying that the man is just as bad as the others or worse than those that they encounter on the road. The boy is able to maintain his compassion because he has a gut feeling on what is wrong which is something that he is not willing to violate. 9. The blind man means that there is no god. There are only the prophets who claim that god exists. We are meant to see the son as the last vessel of mankind in the sense of how civilization sees a man and not a cannibal. 10. They are traveling to a place that is better than their current situation. They are pilgrims in the sense that they are making a voyage to an unknown land. The symbolism of their journey is that they are looking for a safe place to go when there really is no safety anywhere. 11. The Road suggests that evil is a very powerful force, but the power of good will always prevail. 12. The.

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TCO 1) What is the purpose behind the five primary activities in the value chain? First, info flow diagrams and flowcharts argon the two most much utilize development and musical accompaniment tools employ today. Second, since systems developme nt is super complex, DFDs and flowcharts ar! e tools that are used to fix order from sanatorium and complexity.Â (Ch 3, p. 50)| | | Â | Points Received:| 4 of 5| Â | Comments:| First, data flow diagrams and flowcharts are the two most frequently used development and documentation tools used today. Second, since systems development is extremely complex, DFDs and flowcharts are tools that are used to create order from chaos and complexity.| | TCO 1) Name two reasons why it is important to have a working knowledge of DFDs and flowcharting. (Points TCO 1) Name two reasons why it is important to have a working knowledge of DFDs and flowcharting. (Points The flow diagram and the flowcharts are the two more common systems use. Also when it comes to the system development they can get very complex meaning that the DFD and the flowchart are tools that can be used to create order form chaos and complexity. TCO 1) What is the purpose behind the five primary activities in the value chain? First, info flow diagrams and flowcharts argon the two most much utilize development and musical accompaniment tools employ today. Second, since systems developme nt is super complex, DFDs and flowcharts ar! e tools that are used to fix order from.

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Chapter 40 *Homework**Packet* Putting Things in Order Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 6. 0 10. __________ Reagan easily wins reelection by overwhelming divided Democrats. 20. __________ The United States and its allies defeat Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. 30. __________ President Jimmy Carter loses in a landslide to former actor and California governor Ronald Reagan. 40. __________ Reagan’s “supply-side” economic programs pass through Congress, cutting taxes and federal spending. 50. __________ George Herbert Walker Bush defeats Michael Dukakis in a “referendum on Reaganism.” 60. __________ The Soviet Union dissolves into Russia and other new nations, many plagued by fierce ethnic conflicts 0Matching Cause and Effect Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line. Cause Effect 10. ___ The intellectual movement called neoconservatism 20. ___ Reagan’s crusade against big government and social spending 30. ___ By 1983, Reagan’s “supply-side” economic policies 40. ___ The revival of the Cold War in the early eighties 50. ___ Continued political turmoil and war in Lebanon 60. ___ Reagan’s hostility to leftist governments in Central America and the Caribbean 70. ___ Reagan’s personal popularity and Democratic divisions 80. ___ Reagan’s “Star Wars” plan for defensive missile.

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TOPIC:-TYPES OF PRECIPITATIONS PROJECT REPORT BY: - MINTU.R.PATEL ENROLL NO.:- 126310306509 GUIDED BY: - F.P.AMBADIA V.B.PATEL M.M.SHAH TOPIC: - TYPES OF PRECIPITATIONS Sr.No. Date Title Page No. (1) 5/3/2014 INTRODUCTION 3 (2) 5/3/2014 Convective precipitation 3 (3) 5/3/2014 Orographic precipitation 4 (4) 5/3/2014 Cyclonic precipitation 5 (5) 5/3/2014 Frontal precipitation 6 (6) 5/3/2014 Precipitation due to turbulent ascent 6 (7) 5/3/2014 References (1)INTRODUCTION There are five types of precipitation. (1) Convective precipitation (2) Orographic precipitation (3) Cyclonic precipitation (4) Frontal precipitation (5) Precipitation due to turbulent ascent (2)Convective precipitation Convectional precipitation results from the heating of the earth's surface. The warm ground heats the air over it. As the air warms, the air molecules begin to move further apart. With increased distance between molecules, the molecules are less densely packed. Thus, the air becomes “lighter” and rises rapidly into the atmosphere. As the air rises, it cools. Water vapor in the air condenses into clouds and precipitation. This type of precipitation is common in the Prairies and Ontario. The formation of convective precipitatio (3) Orographic precipitation It is due to the lifting of warm.

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opportunities to reflect on their own world To what extent do you agree with this view? The *Road* written by Cormac McCarthy is a post-apocalyptic novel about a man and a boy travelling down across what seems to be a bleak and dull land. In this book, we see a world that seems to have a bleak and dark future without a lot of hope. Land is somehow destroyed, perhaps by a natural cause. The cycle of seasons has been completely altered and there is a lack of civilisation. Although the book is constantly depressing and dark, there are moments that we have some glimpse of hope, and moments where there are some humanity portrayed. This is usually shown by one of the main characters, the boy. Through this novel, we are able to look at a world that is almost completely ruined and allows us to reflect on that. McCarthy is shows us through vivid description that if we continue to play around with nature, such as polluting our current world, one of the possible conclusions could result to being in a world such as the one we see in The *Road* . Therefore I agree to a large extent that the book provides us readers and opportunity to reflect on our own world. McCarthy’s use of language provides us a vivid image in our minds to the post apocalyptic world that the book is set in. We are seen through a number of ways such as through descriptions of reality, morality, immorality and violence to show us the world The *Road* is set. “People sitting.

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Why do you think McCarthy has chosen not to give his characters names? How do the generic labels of “the man” and “the boy” affect the way you /readers relate to them? While reading The *Road* . a novel written by Cormac McCarthy, I was jerked from the warmth, comfort, and safety of my home and thrown into a cold, dark, and desolate world, walking alongside “the man” and “the boy”. McCarthy composes his work so graphically that readers are drawn right into the story. I believe Cormac McCarthy wanted the figures in this book to be universal, so that the reader could imagine him/her self as “the boy” or “the man” at any given moment, and to be able to feel as they do. To do this McCarthy did not designate the characters in his book with names, and because of this, I was able to connect with “the man” and “the boy” on a personal level and envision myself uniting with them in their chilling journey. As the reader, I was deeply overwhelmed with many mixed emotions such as compassion, sadness, happiness, disgust, remorse, and fear. I have pity for the characters in the book The *Road* . because “the man” and “the boy” have to pass day to day struggling to survive in a frigid bleak world where food is scarce “They squatted in the *road* and ate rice and cold beans they’d cooked days ago.” “Already beginning to ferment.”(McCarthy 29). The landscape is blackened, and mankind is almost extinct “The mummied dead everywhere.”(McCarthy.

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MGT 212 Organization Behavior & Management 1. Your employees are skilled and experienced customer service representatives who perform non-routine tasks to solve unique customer problems. They provide the distinct competitive advantage for the company through quality, high-touch and responsive service. You are part of the succession planning for the company and will help select your replacement for the next manager/leader for the group. What would be your recommendations to the hiring team and why? (Be sure to consider company strategy, structure of work, and leadership style in your answer.) First, for hiring a leader,he or she should have the ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness of organization. There are seven leadership competencies he should have. Emotional intelligence, the leader should have the abilities to perceiving ,understanding and regulating his emotions. Integrity, the leader should easy to be trust ,and understand their work and know how to finish it. Drive. leader should have inner motivation to pursue the goals and show their needs for achievement. Leadership motivation, he need the abilities to have high need or socialized power to accomplish team’s goals. Self-confidence, he should have the strong belief in his ability to lead other members in the team. Intelligence, the leader can analyze the problems and the opportunities of the team and his ability should above average cognitive.

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Chapter 13: 13.4 CF0 = (110,000) ; CF1-CF10 = 19,000 ; WACC = 10% NPV = 6,746.78 ; The company should replace the old machine for a new one. 13.6 Year 0 Net Cash Flow = Machine Price + Cost of Install + Increase in Net Working Capital Year 0 = $1,080,000 + $22,500 + $15,500 = ($1,118,000) Depreciation Year 1 = ($1,080,000 + $22,500) x 0.3333 = $367,463 Depreciation Year 2 = ($1,080,000 + $22,500) x 0.4445 = $409,061 Depreciation Year 3 = ($1,080,000 + $22,500) x 0.1481 = $163, 280 Net Operating Cash Flow for Year 1 = $375,612 ; Year 2 = $418,521 ; Year 3 = $304,148 Book Value of the Asset = ($1,080,000 + $22,500) – ($367,463 + $490,061 + $163,280) = $81,696 Net Gain = (($605,000) – ($81,696)) x (1- 0.35) = $340,147 After-tax Net Salvage Value = $81,696 + $340,147 = $421,843 Additional Cash Flow = $421,843 + $15,500 = $437,343 Cash Flow in Year 3 = $304,148 + $437,343 = $741,491 NPV = -$1,118,000 + $335,368 + $333,642 + $527,779 = $78,789 13.8 NPV = $21,780 (1 + 0.06) - $150,000 = $106,520 0.15 – 0.06 Since NPV is positive, the firm should accept the project. 13.10 After tax increase in earnings = Increased earnings x (1 – Tax Rate) = $47,000 x (1 – 0.40) = $28,200 Depreciation using MACRS: Year 1 = $182,500 x 20% = $36,500 x 40% = $14,600 Year 2 = $182,500 x 32% = $58,400 x 40% = $23,260 Year 3 = $182,500 x 19.20% = $35,040 x 40% = $14,016 Year 4 = $182,500 x 11.52% = $21,024 x 40% = $8,409.6 Year 5 = $182,500 x.

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Resume Contact Address House # 51, F # 2d Hisham Villa, Mohonpur Shamoly, Dhaka E-mail: Mehedi775371@gmail.com Phone: 01743-775371 S.M. Mehedi Hasan Career Objective: I am seeking a career oriented job, where I am able to contribute to the organization, by integrating my knowledge and skills to add value to that organization, and improve myself. Educational History: Bachelors of Business Administration (BBA) Name of the Institute. Northern University Bangladesh Major. Marketing Minor. Human Resource Managment Result. CGPA 3.08 Year of Completion. 2013 Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) Name of the Institute. Khulna Public Collage Group. Commerce Board. Jessore Result. GPA 5.00 /4.00 Year of Completion. 2008 Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Name of the Institute. Miksimil Rudaghara High School Group. Commerce Board. Jessore Result. GPA 3.63/5.00 Year of Completion. 2006 Skills: Languages: Bangla, English, and Other Language Reading Writing Speaking Bangla Excellent Excellent Excellent English Good Good Good Computing Skill: Operating skills: Microsoft Office (MS Word, MS Excel, and MS Power Point), Adobe Photoshop CS3, Microsoft Visio, and SPSS. Application Software: Windows XP Professional.

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*Unformatted text preview:* IB Physics Year 1 Summer Homework Directions DO NOT SAVE THIS PACKET UNTIL THE NIGHT BEFORE CLASS OR YOU WILL BE UP ALL NIGHT TRYING TO FINISH IT. In order for you to be prepared to tackle the exciting science of physics you must know some basic math. The purpose of this packet is to review math techniques that you will come across in physics. Do not let this packet scare you away from taking Honors Physics! If you get stuck, simply send me an email! I can be reached at jsperling@nda.org. I will be checking my email at least two times each week over the summer. So make sure you ask for help if you are not sure what to do! You are responsible for knowing this material on the first day you walk into class. The summer packet is due on the first day of class. The packet will be checked for completion. Each problem section will be worth 5 points. You will receive 5 points for completion, 2 point for partial completion, and zero if the section is left blank. It will be your first grade of the semester. Any late packets will be assessed the penalty of -25% per class day late. You will be tested over this material on the second day of class. You may print off this packet or do all of your work on lose leaf. Show all of your work when you are doing the problems. Make sure your work is neat and organized! Put a box around your final answer. Example from Manipulating Equations Part 1: Question: Answer: (What you write) v 2 vi2 2ad f v 2 vi2 2ad f v 2 vi2 2ad f v 2 vi2 f 2d v vi2 2 f 2d 2 ad 2d a Example from Manipulating Equations Part 2: Question: Answer: (What you write) Use the equation # 2. If d = 1.2, t = 0.62, what is v? d t v = 1.2 0.62 v = 1.9 v If you talk to any of your friends over the summer who are also taking honors physics, ask them if they picked up the summer homework. If not, tell them to send me an email requesting the packet. Otherwise they will be expected to do the whole packet for homework on the first day of school. Name:_________________________________________________ IB Physics Year 1 Summer Homework Packet Manipulating Equations: Review of Basic Math Techniques Part 1: Solving algebraic equations. Solve for the variable in bold print. Show all steps. Remember, what you do to one side of the equation you must do to the other. Imitate the example that follows. Note that equal signs are under each other. 1. d v t 2. v d t

notes for part 1: # 10 you are solving for vf # 11 you are solving for vi # 16 you are solving for I # 17 you are solving for d2 # 23 you are solving for m # 26 you are solving for # 28 you are solving for v 9. v 2 vi2 2ad f 10. v f2 vi2 2ad 3. d = vt 11. v 2 v i2 2ad f 4. d 1 ( v f vi )t 2 1 12. d vi t at 2 2 5. F = ma 6. d 1 (v f vi )t 2 13. d v i t 1 2 at 2 7. v f v i at 14. Ft = mv 8. v f vi at 15. ma Fapp mg 16. Q I 2 Rt 24. b a c 17. Gm1m2 F d2 18. Ft = mv 19. Gm1 m2 F d2 20. ma Fapp mg cos = _______ sin = _______ tan = _______ 25. W = Fd cos 26. W = Fd cos 27. Fc mv 2 r 28. Fc mv 2 r 21. ma Fapp mg 29. m1v1 m2v2 m1v1' m2 v'2 22. Ft = mv 30. m1v1 m2 v2 (m1 m2 ) v' 23. ma Fapp mg Part 2: Solve the following. Show every step. Use the equation indicated from the front of this worksheet to answer the problem. I cannot read your mind nor will I assume to know what you did to get the answer. Remember, what you do to one side of the equation you must do to the other. 31. Use the equation # 9. If vf = -73.5, vi = 0, and a = -9.80, what is d? 32. Use the equation # 12. If d = 1.2, a = 1.62, and vi = 0, what is t? 33. Use the equation # 6. If vf = 74, vi = 145, and d = 1700, what is t? 34. Use the equation # 23. If Fapp = 29600, g = 9.80, and a = 4.8, what is m? 35. Use the equation # 27. If Fc = 972, v = 8.0, and m = 60.0, what is r? 36. Use the equation # 27. If Fc = 3.3, m = 97, and r = 6.40 x 106, what is v? 37. Use the equation # 17. If F = 1.7 x 10-12, m1=m2=8.0, and G = 6.67 x 10-11, what is d? 38. Use the equation # 17. If F = 2.75x10-12, G = 6.67x10-11, d = 2.6, and m1 = 0.37, what is m2? 39. Use the equation # 29. If m1 = 0.035, m2 = 2.5, v1 = 475, v2 = 0, v1'= 275, what is v2'? 40. Use the equation # 25. If F = 805, W = 1.8x104, = 32º, what is d? 41. Use the equation # 25. If F = 88, W = 8.0x104, d = 1200, what is. 42. Use the equation # 16. If R = 4.0, Q = 1.1x106 and t = 300, what is I? 43. Use the equation # 30. If m1 = 0.115, v1 = 35.0, m2 = 0.265, and v2 = 0, what is v'? Metric Conversions Science uses many different units of measurement. In order to make our lives easier a base system of units was developed. The base units are: Measurement Mass Length Time Symbol m d t Base Unit kilogram meter second Units kg m s Example m = 54.3 kg d = 34.2 m t = 65.1 s All mathematical calculations that use scientific equations require the numbers entered into the equation to be in terms of the base units. Often these numbers will need to be converted into the base units. Below are the most common conversion factors needed for this class. Common Conversion Factors Mass 1000 g = 1 kg Length 1000 mm = 1 m 100 cm = 1 m 1000 m = 1 km Time 60 s = 1 min 60 min = 1 hr 24 hrs = 1 day Volume 1000 mL = 1 L 1 mL = 1 cm3 Example Problems: How many grams are in 32.5 kg? 1000 g 32.5kg 32,500 g 1kg How many millimeters are in 8.45 km? 1000m 1000mm 8.45km 8,450,000mm 1km 1m How many seconds are in 2.5 days? 24hrs 60 min 60s 2.5days 216,000s 1day 1hr 1 min How many liters are in 53.4 mL? 1L 53.4mL 0.0534mL 1000mL Problems: Do the metric conversions. Show how you made the conversion. Circle your answer. 44. 8.00 km cm 49. 54.6 mm m 45. 1.49 kg g 50. 14.75 cm mm 46. 6.05 kg g 51. 3125 g kg 47. 7.3 km mm 52. 3.00 m cm 48. 83.7 m km 53. 100 cm m Scientific Notation Science often uses very large and very small quantities. For example the mass of the Earth is 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg and the mass of an electron is 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,911 kg. Written in this form, the quantities take up much space and are difficult to use in calculations. To work with such numbers more easily, we write them in a short hand form by expressing decimal places as powers of ten. This method is called exponential notation. Scientific notation is based on exponential notation. In scientific notation, the numerical part of a measurement is expressed as a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a whole-number power of ten. M 10 n In this expression 1 M 10 and n is an integer. For example 2000 meters can be written as 2 103 m and the mass of a 0.180 kg softball is 1.80 101 kg. When dealing with really big numbers, you move the decimal to the right, counting each place it moves, until you have only 1 number in front of it. The number of places you move the decimal becomes the exponent. For example, 23454 m becomes 2.35 104 m. So the mass of the earth is about 6 10 24 kg. When dealing with really small numbers, you move the decimal to the left, counting each place it moves, until you have a number other than zero in front of it. The number of places you move the decimal becomes the exponent. Because the number is less than 1, a negative sign is put in front of the exponent. For example, 0.000000023454 m becomes 2.35 108 m. So the mass of an electron is about 9.11 1031 kg. When typing a number that is in scientific notation into your calculator you use the "EE" button over the ",". For example, if you want to type 2.35x10-8 into your calculator you would type 2.35E-8. Do not use the "^" button for the exponent. It will mess up your math. When writing your answer replace the "E" with "x10". Problems: Write the following numbers in scientific notation 54. 83934 __________________________ 58. 0.0002 __________________________ 55. 0.23000 ________________________ 59. 30000 _________________________ 56. 2.4309 __________________________ 60. 90.200 __________________________ 57. 2.3000 __________________________ 61. 1200.1 __________________________ Write the following numbers in regular format. 62. 3.203x104 __________________________ 65. 2.924x10-4 __________________________ 63. 1.23x10-3 ________________________ 66. 3.00x102 _________________________ 64. 2.43x10-1 __________________________ 67. 9.34x101 __________________________ Significant Digits Significant digits are digits in any measurement that are known with certainty plus 1 estimated digit. Significant digits are important in science because they tell you how accurate your measurements are. The number of significant digits depends on the precision of the tool used to make the measurement. If you are given the number 84.3 cm you know that the tool used to make the measurement had a precision of centimeters (meaning the smallest increment marked on the tool was in centimeters) and the 3 was estimated (only one estimated digit is ever recorded). Example Rule 2: All zeros between significant digits are significant. Rule 3: All zeros to the left of nonzero digits are not significant.

The zeros in front are just place holders to tell you that the number is really small Rule 4: All zeros after nonzero digits to the right of the decimal point are significant. Rule 5: In numbers that do not contain decimal points, and that end is one or more zeros, the zeros may or may not be significant. So if they are significant, write the number in scientific notation! # of Sig.Digits 3.1428 3.14 469 Rules for Significant Digits Rule 1: All numbers that do not contain zeros are significant. 5 3 3 7.053 7053 302 4 4 3 0.0056 0.0789 0.000001 2 3 1 43 43.0 43.000 0.00200 0.40050 2 3 5 3 5 340 3.4x102 3.40x102 2000000 2.000000x106 2.00x10-4 2 2 3 1 7 3 Problems: State the number of significant digits in each measurement. 68. 83934 __________________________ 74. 0.0002 __________________________ 69. 0.23000 ________________________ 75. 30000 _________________________ 70. 2.4309 __________________________ 76. 90.200 __________________________ 71. 2.3000 __________________________ 77. 1200.1 __________________________ 72. 3.203x104 __________________________ 78. 9.34x101 __________________________ 73. 1.23x10-3 ________________________ 79. 1.221x10-5 __________________________ Rounding When doing math, your calculator will often display eight or more digits. Not all of these digits are significant. This will guide you in your rounding. Examples # of Sig. Figs. needed 54.2 + 86.23 = 104.43 24.6 + 146.26 = 170.86 15-3.653 = 11.347 65-7.22 = 57.78 8.3452 x 34.2 = 285.40584 2.65 x 23.7596 = 62.96294 23445.234 = 5.173099881 3028.228315.8352107 = 9.588 4 (1 decimal place) 4 (1 decimal place) 2 (0 decimal places) 2 (0 decimal places) 3 3 3 3 Rule 2: If the digit that is to be rounded is followed by a number less than 5, leave the number as is and drop the rest of the digits. 104.43 104.4 11.347 11 285.40584 285 5.173099881 5.17 4 2 3 3 Rule 3: If the digit that is to be rounded is followed by a number that is 5 or greater, round that number up to the next number and drop the remaining digits. 170.86 170.9 57.78 58 62.96294 63.0 9.588 9.59 4 2 3 3 9.999 10.0 136.983 137.0 9999.9 10,000 1.000x104 3 4 4 Rules for Rounding Rule 1: Determine the number of significant digits you should have. Rule 4: Rounding with 9's Problems: Round each number to three digits. 80. 2643 _________________________________ 86. 83934 _____________________________ 81. 6435.33_______________________________ 87. 0.23000 ___________________________ 82. 0.1232 _______________________________ 88. 2.4309 ____________________________ 83. 459.3452 _____________________________ 89. 2.99999 ____________________________ 84. 1200.1 _______________________________ 90. 30000 _____________________________ 85. 2000.01_______________________________ 91. 90.200 ____________________________ Math and Rounding with Significant Digits Example # of Sig. Figs for answer Final Answer 8.536 x 0.47 = 4.01192 3840 285.3 = 13.459516 360.0 3.000 = 12 2 3 4 4.0 13.5 12.00 34.6 + 17.8 + 15 = 67.4 20.02 + 20.002 + 20.0002 =60.0222 345.56-245.5=100.06 0 decimals 2 decimals 1 decimal 67 60.02 100.1 2 2.1 3 99.1 Math with Significant Digits Multiplication and Division: An answer should have the number of significant digits found in the number with the fewest significant figures. Addition and Subtraction: The answer should not have digits beyond the last digit position common to all the numbers being added and subtracted. Combination Problems: Follow order of operations. Compare the number of significant digits you should have for the addition and subtraction part to the number you should have for the multiplication and division part. Use the smallest one. (3.43+6.00) 4.5 = 2.09555555 3 to 2 (2.849-0.0023) x 34.8 = 99.06516 4 to 3 Problems: Write the answers to the following with the proper number of significant digits. 92. 235.14 + 234.4 = __________________ 100. (23.43 2.25) _______________________ 123.523 93. 235 x 4.0 = ______________________ 101. 9.002 94. 75.23 + 362.4626 = ________________ 95. 306.4937 x 3.11 = _________________ 96. 852.8 - 37.253 = __________________ 102. 9 10 4 (1.25 63.42) ________________ 0.0023 23.2 ________________ (643.24 0.92) 103. (2.84 105 3.253 10 4 ) 5 ___________ 97. 23.50 4 = _______________________ 104. 98. 23.6 - 2.3053 = ___________________ 99. 9.33 2.3048 = ___________________ 10.0 2.34 0.234 ___________________ 9.0233 10 5 105. 0.0023 0.230 3.2 235.4 _________ 3.09 10 2 Lab Equipment, Lab Techniques, and Data Analysis Measurement Basics 1. Measuring Length a. Metric Ruler Metric Ruler. Metric rulers are used to measure length. Most rulers have both Standard (ex. Inches) and metric (ex. cm) on one ruler. The metric side is the one with the smaller increments. Each small line on the metric side is a millimeter, each number indicates centimeters. 10mm = 1 cm. If what you are measuring is between 2 lines, you can approximate this as 0.05. In this picture, the ruler is 10.70cm, or 107.0 mm. b. Meter Stick Meter stick. Meter sticks are used to measure longer lengths. There are 100cm in one meter. The standard measure of one yard is shorter than a meter. 2. Measuring Volume a. Graduated cylinders should be the most common way to measure volumes of liquids. They come in all sizes and are named for the maximum volume they can contain (ex. 100ml graduated cylinder). Since all graduated cylinders are different, the first thing you must do is determine the value for each marked increment on the graduated cylinder. The ring at the top will prevent breakage if tipped over. b. Beakers come in many sizes. They are named for the maximum volume they can approximately hold (ex. 600ml beaker). Beakers should NOT really be used to measure volumes of liquids. They are not very accurate. Typically, they are used as containers to hold approximate volumes, mixing, and boiling. c. Erlenmeyer flasks come in many sizes. They are named for the maximum volume they can approximately hold (ex. 300ml Erlenmeyer). Erlenmeyers should NOT really be used to measure volumes of liquids. They are not very accurate. Typically, they are used to mix substances, which, because of the shape of the container, can be done by swirling. d. Volumetric flasks come in many sizes. They are named for the volume they measure (ex. 250ml Volumetric). There are no increments. They measure only one volume. They are used for accurate measuring and diluting. e. Pipettes Basically, pipets are specially designed and calibrated glass tubes used for accurately transferring accurate small volumes of solution (usually 50 mL or less) from one container to another. Pipets are available in a variety of types and sizes, for many different uses. For each pipette, you need to determine the value of each increment. Types of pipettes include serologic, bulb, and volumetric. f. Obtaining the best measurement i. Choose the best equipment based on your goal. Determine how accurate your measurement must be. This is particularly important when measuring liquids. Most students use beakers to measure liquid volumes, but they are not accurate. Use the equipment closest in size to what you need. For example, don’t use a meter stick to measure the length of a raisin; use a metric ruler. ii. Determine the value of the increments. For example, on a graduated cylinder, the small lines in-between the numbers have different values, depending on the graduated cylinder you are using. You must figure out how many lines are in-between the numbers in order to understand what increment (how many ml) each line represents. You can use a simple math formula (ml ÷ # of lines). For example, if there are ten lines between the numbers 3 and 4, each line is 0.1ml (1ml ÷ 10 lines). If there are 5 lines between numbers 3 and 4, each line is 0.2 ml (1ml ÷5 lines = 0.2ml). Read the following graduated cylinders iii. Read to the bottom of the meniscus. When a liquid is placed in a class container, the surface will be slightly curved. This curved surface is called a meniscus. To measure the volume accurately, your eye must be at the same level as the bottom of the meniscus. iv. When recording your answers, and equipment, use cm3 as your unit. 1ml = 1cm3. 3. Measuring Mass a. Digital Balance Digital pan balances are easy to use. Make sure you 1. Use a measuring pan. Never put your sample directly on the balance. 2. Zero your balance with your measuring pan on it. 3. Pay attention to your units. Balances can measure in different units (ex. Ounces and grams). b. Double Pan Beam Balance 1. Place the object you are massing on the left plate. 2. Push the slides to the right until the plates balance. 3. Read the measurement like you would a meter stick. 4. If the object is too heavy for a scale place a counter weight on the right side and move the sliders until it is balanced. Then add the counter weights mass to your reading. 4. Measuring Temperature - Thermometers a. Always use Celsius b. Determine the value of the increments on the thermometer using the same method as graduated cylinders. 5. Lab Quest a. A computer device that will collect and graph data. b. Comes with a variety of data collecting tools which include motion detectors, temperature probes, and pressure gauges. c. Data can be transferred to a computer and analyzed using Logger Pro software. Dealing with Error in Measurements 1. Human error Human error can occur when tools or instruments are used or read incorrectly. For example a temperature reading from a thermometer in a liquid should be taken after stirring the liquid and whilst the bulb of the thermometer is still in the liquid. Thermometers and other instruments should be read with the eye level with the liquid. Human errors can be systematic or random. 2. Systematic errors Systematic errors involve issues with equipment. Is the thermometer or ruler you are using 100% accurate? Probably not. Some systematic errors can be minimized by calibrating equipment. It is standard practice to assume that the reading error is half the smallest division interval on the instrument. For digital pan balance, use the smallest increment. For all equipment, you indicate there may be an error by including a (+/-) range in your answer. Example: 3. Random errors Because we are dealing with biological samples in environmental conditions, the changes in the material used or the conditions in which they are carried out can cause a lot of errors. The problem of random errors can be kept to a minimum by careful selection of material and careful control of variables (e.g. using a water bath or a blank), and averaging results. 4. Accuracy and Precision accuracy - how close you are to the accepted or actual value precision - all measurements are close to each other, value doesn't vary much This is a random-like pattern, neither precise nor accurate. The darts are not clustered together and are not near the bull's eye. This is a precise pattern, but not accurate. The darts are clustered together but did not hit the intended mark. This is an accurate pattern, but not precise. The darts are not clustered, but their 'average' position is the center of the bull's eye. This pattern is both precise and accurate. The darts are tightly clustered and their average position is the center of the bull's eye. Measurements are accurate if the systematic error is small. They are precise if the random error is small. True Value Accurate but ||||| || | | | || | | | not precise Precise but Not precise, Precise and || ||| not accurate not accurate accurate Mean, Median, Mode, and Range 1. Mean In science we often use averages to interpret data. Three ways are mean, median and mode. The mean is an average and is likely something you have seen before. Here you add up all the numbers and divide by the number of numbers. For example: You are given test scores of 57, 56, 59, 62, 51, and 55. If you add them up, the total is 60+56+59+62+54+57+60= 406. Since there are 7 numbers you divide 406/7 and get the mean, 58. 2. Median The median is the middle number when your numbers are listed in numerical order. Using the example list of test scores above, in order the median would be: 54,56,57,59,60,60,62 = 59 3. Mode The mode is just the number that appears most often. If no number repeats, there is no mode. Using the example test scores above, the mode would be: 54,56,57,59,60,60,62 = 60 4. Range When discussing range, you take the difference between the smallest number and the largest number in the group. Using the example set from above the range would be 54,56,57,59,60,60,62 = 62-54= 8 Practice Problems Using a metric ruler (one with centimeters), measure the lines below. Remember units and error ranges. 106. ________________________ 107. ______________________________________________ 108. ________ 109. ________________________________________________________________________ 110. Find the mean, median, mode, and range for the following sets of numbers. Number list 13,18,13,14,13,16,14,21,13 23,36,42,38,28,37,23,43,34,29,41 9,12,5,13,13,15,6,8,6,4,12,6 Mean Median Mode Range.

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