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Topic outline of architecture — For a more comprehensive list, see the List of architecture topics. Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings. Architectural design usually must address both feasibility and cost for the builder, as well as function and… … Wikipedia
Outline of painting history — is a brief outline with templates and links to Wikipedia articles and subjects related to Art History and specifically the history of painting as an art form. Art history series … Wikipedia
Outline of classical studies — See also: Outline of ancient Greece, Outline of ancient Rome, and Outline of ancient Egypt The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical studies: Classical studies (Classics for short) – earliest branch… … Wikipedia
Outline of Quebec — See also: Index of Quebec related articles … Wikipedia
Outline of science — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to science: Science – in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on… … Wikipedia
Outline of Africa — See also: Index of Africa related articles The following outline provides an overview of and topical guide to the continent Africa: Africa – world s second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia … Wikipedia
Outline of Buddhism — See also: Index of Buddhism related articles Flag of Buddhism … Wikipedia
Cities Full of Symbols: A Theory of Urban Space and Culture
by Peter J. M. Nas (ed.) - Leiden University Press. 2011
The book develops urban symbolic ecology and hypercity approaches into a new perspective on social cohesion. Architects, sociologists and historians converge to make this a book for anyone interested in urban life, policymaking and city branding.
Architecture in the Anthropocene
by Etienne Turpin (ed.) - Open Humanities Press. 2013
This volume brings together a provocative series of essays, conversations, and design proposals that intensify the potential of the multidisciplinary discourse developing in response to the Anthropocene thesis for contemporary architecture practice.
Passages: explorations of the contemporary city
by Graham Livesey - University of Calgary Press. 2004
This volume examines eight topics related to the contemporary urban domain. The author employs powerful geographic and literary concepts such as space, narrative, and metaphor to interpret the often bewildering complexity of the post-modern city.
Architecture and Democracy
by Claude Fayette Bragdon - A. A. Knopf. 1918
This book was written in the scant intervals afforded by the practice of the profession of architecture, so broadened as to include the study of abstract form, the creation of ornament, experiments with color and light, and educational activities.
A History of Architecture
by F. Kimball, G.H. Edgell - Harper & brothers. 1918
The attempt has been made to present each style as a thing of growth and change, rather than as a formula based on the monuments of some supposed apogee, with respect to which the later forms have too often been treated as corrupt.
by Lewis Falley Allen - ManyBooks. 1852
A complete description of farm houses, cottages, and out buildings, comprising wood houses, workshops, tool houses, carriage and wagon houses, stables, smoke and ash houses, ice houses, apiary or bee house, poultry houses, rabbitry, dovecote, etc.
Castles of England
- Wikibooks. 2012
This book is about castles in England, their development and design through the medieval period. A glossary and a time line illustrating the development of castles through history can be found at the end of the book along with a reference section.
The Seven Periods of English Architecture
by Edmund Sharpe - E. & F. N. Spon. 1888
The object of this treatise is to present at a glance a comprehensive view of the History of English Church Architecture from the Heptarchy to the Reformation, and to do this in a manner which may enable him to fix in his mind the general outline.
Castles of England and Wales
by E. J. MacDonald - Thomas Nelson and Sons. 1920
Castles of England and Wales contains sections on the castles of: Windsor; Alnwick; Arundel; Bamburgh; Caerphilly; Carisbrooke, Corfe and Porchester; Castle Rising; The Channel Coast; Chepstow; Chillingham; Chirk; Durham; Kenilworth; etc.
A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method
by Banister Fletcher - Batsford. 1905
Architecture has been described very truly as the printing press of all ages. This book is an excellent and essential reference and a treasure trove of architectural history for architects or anyone interested in architecture through the ages.
Second Homes for Leisure Living
- Douglas Fir Plywood Corporation. 1960
The labor-saving advantages of plywood are fully realized in the construction of the outstanding 2nd homes on the following pages which were developed by various manufacturers through the agency of the Douglas Fir Plywood Association.
The Seven Lamps of Architecture
by John Ruskin - Project Gutenberg. 2011
Essay on architecture by John Ruskin, published in 1849. According to Ruskin, the leading principles of architecture are the 'lamps' of Sacrifice, Truth, Power, Beauty, Life, Memory, and Obedience. The noblest style of architecture was Gothic.
by Nancy Bell - Project Gutenberg. 2010
It is only when a building entirely fulfils the purpose for which it is intended and bears the impress of a genuine style that it takes rank as a work of architecture. This is a history of architecture from Egyptian to Renaissance Architecture.
Methods and Techniques in Urban Engineering
by A. C. de Pina Filho and A. C. de Pina - InTech. 2010
Topics covered: urban automation; geographic information systems; urban noise, floods and transports; information technology applied to the cities; tools for urban simulation, social monitoring and control of urban policies; sustainability; etc.
The Picturesque Antiquities of Spain
by Nathaniel Armstrong Wells - Project Gutenberg. 2010
Some accounts of the author's travels in Spain. Described in a series of letters, with illustrations, representing moorish palaces, cathedrals, and other monuments of art, contained in the cities of Burgos, Valladolid, Toledo and Seville.
The Practical Book of Architecture
by Charles Matlack Price - J.B. Lippincott Company. 1916
Ability to distinguish the various principal styles of architecture should be a part of the culture of every well-informed man and woman. The book gives a thorough working knowledge of architectural styles, for the use of the general reader.
Acoustics And Architecture
by Paul E. Sabine - McGraw-Hill. 1932
Contents: Nature and properties of sound; Sustained sound in an inclosure; Reverberation theoretical and experimental; Measurement of absorption coefficients; Sound absorption coefficients of materials; Reverberation and the acoustics of rooms; etc.
Cathedral Cities of Spain: 60 reproductions from original water colours
by W. W. Collins. 1908
Probably the most interesting moments of the trip abroad by the architectural students are those spent in sketching bits of interest in water color. Nothing is so helpful, so reminiscent as these same notes of color when viewed in alter years.
by Vijay Duggal - Mailmax Pub. 2000
CADD Primer is a beginners reference book on computer aided design and drafting. It describes the general principles of working with CAD. It can give you a headstart in learning CAD regardless whatever CAD program you may have to use.
The Poetry of Architecture
by John Ruskin - Project Gutenberg
Of all embellishments by which the efforts of man can enhance the beauty of natural scenery, those are the most effective which can give animation to the scene, while the spirit which they bestow is in unison with its general character.
American Urban Architecture: Catalysts in the Design of Cities
by Wayne Attoe, Donn Logan - University of California Press. 1992
The authors propose a theory of catalytic architecture suited to specifically American circumstances. With a series of case studies, they examine urban design successes that illustrate the principles and goals of catalytic architecture.
Romantic Castles and Palaces: As Seen and Described by Famous Writers
by Esther Singleton - Dodd, Mead & Company. 1901
A collection of essays on forty-eight spectacular castles and palaces from around the world. The authors are Sir Walter Scott, Alexandre Dumas, Robert Louis Stevenson, etc. The pictures were taken before the book was published in 1901.
A Text-book of the History of Architecture
by Alfred D. F. Hamlin - Longmans, Green, & Co.. 1906
The aim of this book was to sketch the various periods and styles of architecture with the broadest possible strokes, and to mention the most important works of each period or style. Extreme condensation of architectural history was necessary.
Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture
by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio - Harvard University Press. 1914
The only full treatise on architecture to survive from classical antiquity, this is the most important work of architectural history in the Western world, having shaped architecture and the image of the architect from the Renaissance to the present.
by Peter Hampson Ditchfield - Methuen. 1911
This book is intended not to raise fears but to record facts. We wish to describe with pen and pencil those features of England which are gradually disappearing and to preserve the memory of them. It may be said that we have begun our quest too late.
Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Hittites were quite right in posing the question of possible relationship between the building and its site or some ideological concepts. In fact, there are multiple examples to support opinion developed by Hittites that was traced in the historical cut. That is to say, the architecture of ancient Greeks or of France in the era of Baroque represents both sides of the question posed. Ancient Greeks were well devoted to their mythology as well as to the peculiarities of climate in the Mediterranean region. The Parthenon fits into discussion as it is build with the inclusion of columns in Doric and Ionic style which is less heat-insulated due to huge openings between the columns. On the other hand, the architecture of France in the 17th century was well influenced by the Baroque trend and some gothic implementations so popular in the epoch of early Enlightenment.
Besides, it is vital to pay special attention to the components of architecture which are impacted by the landscape, site, and climate. Since the times of Vitruvius and Alberti, it is not a conundrum for an architect. The thing is that architecture should be in harmony with the environment. Thus, it would be inconsistent for ancient Greece to have castles of medieval England. Once again, it was convenient and quite impressing for ancient Greeks to build the Parthenon with huge and magnificent Doric columns on the top place of Athens. As a temple, it served for the religious needs of ancient Greeks. Hence, it should demonstrate the cultural-in-relation-with-the-environmental peculiarities of the architecture. Form and space were taken to make it more distinct.
Chateau de Maisons-Laffitte is a magnificent artifact of the French Baroque which fits into the sceneries around (park, alleys, etc.) and demonstrates a well equipped and symmetrical building in a manner describing a transition period from the late renaissance toward early Baroque. It is a building which demonstrates its applicability to the landscape and harmony with the major philosophic trends of the epoch.
Architecture of all times is the universal heritage of the mankind. In this respect one can say that history repeats itself and that architecture can be repeated in a historical relation. Moreover, architecture provides people with a precious experience of space and form serving for further innovative and revolutionary ideas appropriate for the demands of time. John Ruskin outlined that experience in architecture teaches people (Ruskin 188). Thus, historic architecture along with urban contexts provides a myriad of different ideas on how to design interior or exterior part of the building.
Most of all, a mixture of different styles and trends in one building give an amazing aesthetic impression. In the course of time, architects of different countries and different times were inventing something new for the architecture. For instance, the invention of aqueducts was pivotal for water facilities in ancient times. Afterwards, the system of airing was also invented for better ventilation of the inner spaces of a building. More openings in a building served as a natural system of lighting. Today, the example of 30 St Mary Axe, a skyscraper in London in the form of a "cucumber" unites all those decisions, as one of the most economically approved and ecofriendly buildings. Air-conditioning, lighting, and energy use are kept to a minimum in the building which makes it a low-energy one (Masters, Fallon and Maric 106).
Norman Foster, chief architect and designer of the project, tried to provide the best technologies and knowledge the humanity has at the time in order to create something unique and applicable to the demands of time (Masters, Fallon and Maric 106). Thus, the historic architecture plays a major role for inventing something new. On the other hand, a demographic instability of different areas of the world influences collective design choices. In other words, the main goal for urban designs is to provide people with places to live and work in a needful amount. In turn it makes architecture even more diverse in the contemporary discourse on what influences contemporary designs. Furthermore, in the past, for instance, renaissance architecture turned back to the antiquity in finding the best patterns and attainments in architecture and reflecting them with new understanding of urban contexts and philosophical treatment.
The architectural heritage of North Carolina expresses by the amount of religious components in different buildings. To say more, each building has its specific history to be told to a simple visitor. It makes the whole picture of North Carolina, as the center for religious (Christian) development in the east coast of the United States. However, to describe the religious motives of the buildings in this state, one should initially take a look at Wake Forest University.
It is a representation of the antebellum architecture of the United States with its chapel in the central part of the building and other buildings it consists of (Mass 33). The building of the university is full of religious traits in it. Needless to say, all these components are excellent and lead toward the times of religious righteousness and decency in a puritan manner. It was designed to promote more opportunities for would-be Baptist clergymen. Nevertheless, a symmetric form of its administrative building is well decorated with six columns in a Doric style and the chapel over them in order to prescribe core religious values to the building even though its visitors have no idea of the building's destination (Mass 33).
Its architectural ensemble is patterned with the "fusion of modern and traditional southern Georgian brick" (Mass 33). An enormous amount of Christian churches of different types the building could not have fail to describe the religious value in its architectural features. Landscape and overall sceneries around the university with its numerous facilities and campuses gives a traditional understanding of the American puritan life once established in the area with the first settlers from Europe. On the other hand, Georgian style makes all buildings inimitable and full of magnificence. Domed roofs of the buildings outline their significance for the religious use. Thus, Wake Forest University is just one of the multiple examples of architecture impacted and developed by the religious tendency in building and architectural design.
In the architectural sense, the arrival of Europeans in North America was incredible for the native people living in the continent. The thing is that new, more innovative and groundbreaking, technologies were used in building houses with bricks and wood. It was really astonishing for different tribes used to live in wigwams. New buildings and other decorations were a stamp of the European lifestyle and code of aesthetic and ethical norms in defining the form and the function of a definite building.
Europeans generated the architectural renovation in the area bringing their own cultural trends to North America. It helped to spread the Western tendency in building and architectural features. On the other hand, a change of materials was overt: "As metal tools and nails, then paints and cloth, and finally milled lumber and molded bricks became available, traditional materials such as buffalo hide, elm bark, and other natural supplies became harder to get" (Eggener 48). Thus, indigenous people living in North America faced the Western culture in architectural style for the first time.
What is more, Indians were resisting the European expansion, but it was in vain due to the technical and technological advantage of Europeans. The main settlers at the time were clergymen and missionaries along with the soldiers and their families. This is why innovations in architecture were inevitable for Indians. Their view on architecture had changed dramatically to using more effective approaches in architecture destined either for living or for other needs and wants.
The resistance between European and Indian trends in architecture was really tenacious, as indigenous people of America tried to follow their culture in architectural implementation rather than to put it back. Some Indian tribes strong at fighting for their traditional architecture while others "viewed the structures blending European and Indian elements as the foundation of a new "traditional" identity" (Eggener 49). It was a real blend of different cultures aimed at finding out some consensual points in the architectural development evident at the coastal regions along the Atlantic Ocean.
Cluny Abbey is an outstanding relic building of ancient times which served as a Christian monastery in the area of Burgundy, contemporary France, and was established in 910 AD (Schadé Ch 12). It was an enormous building which was totally destroyed but is still a great evidence of the Romanesque architecture with different sculptures (Schadé Ch 12). In fact, Cluny Abbey was built in the time when the religious influence was the most severe in the history of Europe. It was in medieval times and the significance of the Abbey was great.
As an evidence of Romanesque architecture, the building was also the center for ecclesiastical reforms (Schadé Ch 12). It means that the inside and outside decoration of the building was of the highest quality, since the church elite visited the place many times and for many reasons. Nonetheless, the building was evaluated as the focal place for further development of the Christian ideas throughout Europe and overseas. Bearing in mind the fact that it was in medieval time, one may figure out drab and poorly lit rooms and corridors of the building reflecting the ancient times and passions of Christ, so to speak.
All in all, it was a prerequisite of the gothic style in architecture with its semi-circular and pointed arches with the mysterious, though gorgeous patterns and sculptures inserted in the building (Browne 35). As an evidence of Romanesque architecture, it was very high and spacious enough to serve for the ministries of monks inhabiting it. Thus, the cultural tendency of that time had been projected on the creation of Romanesque architecture with its relation to Cluny Abbey. This fact goes ahead in the discussion of the Catholic temples and churches built after the Abbey. However, it is apparent and well proved that Cluny Abbey was among the first hugest buildings of monastic relation in Europe of the medieval times. Moreover, it influenced forthcoming tendency in building gothic churches all around Western Europe.
Gothic cathedral architecture is among the most important evidences of the human thought in art and architecture with lots of symbolic meanings. Insofar, the medieval times are associated with the advent of this architectural style in Europe. In this respect it is still necessary to know the gist of the gothic cathedral architecture and its overall impression on the example of an individual building. It goes without saying that mostly religious symbols of evil and goodness were implemented throughout gothic cathedral as a means of deterrent for laymen and other people living at unity with the faith.
One of the most outstanding evidences of the gothic cathedral architecture is Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral situated in Paris, France. A newbie would definitely associate this individual building with the darkness of sins and the purity of righteousness. Thereupon, it is quite important to pay attention to the main components of the building, as a representative for the gothic art and architecture. The main constructive decisions of the gothic style are pointed arches, flying buttresses and, perhaps, ribbed vaults (Cunningham and Reich 213). The building was traditionally built with the incrusted beasts (gargoyles) and cathedral bell (horarium) (Cunningham and Reich 218). Hence, these components only could create the illusion of the religious intent of the building and its direct belonging to the major religion in the area.
Moreover, the effect of design and construction of the building from outside is more amplified when going inside. Huge and rather tall arches justify the priority of heaven over the mortality and primitive significance of human beings. Such an intention seems to be absorbed in every wall with patterned sculptures and elements and in the most valued places of the cathedral, such as altar. No wonder, an ordinary viewer and visitor of Notre Dame de Paris will be impressed by the excellence of the building and its destination, in particular. Gothic architecture stems from the religious tendencies in the medieval society and is outlined among individuals with such enormous and eye-catchy facades of the gothic cathedral architecture throughout Europe.
The history of architecture makes the picture of different styles, trends, and tendencies referred to architecture whole and consistent for a researcher. As a matter of fact, without looks at history a professional architect will never point out pros and cons of the beauty architecture brings into masses. Architecture in the past is a precious experience at present. This claim is stronger when taking the reality of contemporary versatility of architectural forms as a given. That is, current tendency in architecture has many to do with lots of trends already at the mankind's disposal.
Future design projects tend to delve into the most interesting themes for the core audience or an individual. It makes plenty of decision-making procedures until the project is adopted. However, keeping in mind the brilliance of the architectural heritage worldwide, there is plenty to think of some new motives and implications at large. One of the examples is Boston Museum of Fine Arts done with the insertions of the antebellum Georgian style with reference to the traditional European motives of the 18th century incorporated with the high-tech implications in both interior and exterior parts of the building.
Knowledge people gained during centuries of the architectural search are shared by architects and engineers in building skyscrapers, such as those in Shanghai or Burj Khalifa (the tallest building of the world). It would be impossible for the humanity, if numerous attempts to achieve the tops of architectural thought were made beforehand. The highest tempos in constructing revolutionary new buildings in different countries of the world is the result of how often architects weigh the overall attainments throughout the history of architecture so as to find out new methods, technologies or techniques in satisfying the needs of the mankind. The question is that not all relic buildings are well researched in the architectural milieu. A good example is the pyramids in Egypt or town of Machu Pikchu in Peru. However, a scientific thought is going on toward seeking for perfection.
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