Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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As organic corn continues to increase in price, thats the big problem for many organic poultry farms economic. While Buckwheat's a grain has nutrition value relative equal with corn and soya. In addition, its easy to grow and include some biomolecules, antinutrition properties benefic for the health higher than another grains. Although Buckwheat (BW) has been used for many years, there are a few published data available for poultry. Therefore, This study supported the level feeding of 0, 10% Tartary Buckwheat (TBW) and 10%, 20%, 30% Commend Buckwheat (CBW) in laying hens diet. The result performed that the rate of eggs production, eggs mass, the power to broken egg, yolk color, feed intake, feed conversion, were not significant and not a big different between five treatments. Thus, It's a good choose for the farmer when BW has lower price or to make full use in their farm for replace for corn and soya bean in some cases.
BW is a good ingredient to alter corn, soybean and wheat. Soybean, corn, wheat are public using not only for human, animal consumption and for industrial food, but also corn using for bio- ethanol-fuel. Furthermore, they need fertilizer, pesticide and a lot of care to ensuring for growing and development. Thus, their prices always fluctuate in direction of increasing which become big problem for the farmer profitability. Therefore, nowadays many research looking for some ingredient can replace them in animal diet that ensuring adequate nutrient to help them grow and develop well and the farmer get more profit and the consumer have a high quality, safety food and BW is a good choose for the farmer.
BW plants can grow with low fertilizer or in poor soil where are more sandy, well in drained soil and high temperatures, dry winds (Inayatullah Tahir and Sikandar Farooq, 1988), (Campbell, C. G. and Gubbels, G. H. 1979) with the short length period growing (Hector Valenzuela1 and Jody Smith, 2002) and insects do not a big problem (Kulikov, N.I. et al, 2004). Hence, the farmer can improve their profit by save money on less using the fertilizer and pesticide this is a good way for decrease the residue chemical in food, produce a safety food and decrease the pollution for environment, improve the fertility of the poor soil. Not so much studies about BW but it were enough to prove BW is a good nutrient quality value feed domestic animal. Special for laying hen it could be replaced for 20% corn and 10% soybean meal with supplimentation 30% BW bran without using another cereal in the diet, it helped broiler increase feed-intake and partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units (Maria Novella Benvenuti et al, 2012).
BW has a high bio-nutrient value and fluctuation dependent on the partial plant and the environment factor (Kim, S.L. et al, 2001), (G. Bonafaccia et al, 1994). There is more anti-oxidation like flavonoid, rutin in flowers and leaves than in stem and seed (Kim, S.L. et al, 2001). Great in vitamin B group, special vitamin B6 (G. Bonafaccia et al, 2011). Their biological protein value such as lysine and methionine are higher than corn (Jacob, J. P. and Carter, C. A. 2008). It's rich in trace mineral and more Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, and P than wheat (Ikeda, S. et al, 2006). Content little allergy (Wang Z. H. et al, 2004), (Jeong-Lim Kim et al, 2004), (Hinneburg I.et al. 2005), and anti-nutrition factors such as Fagopyrin, Tannin, Trypsin inhibitor but it is not common and some of these factors is the anti-micro and anti-cancer factor (Sytar, O. et al. 2013), (Mori, A. et al, 1987), (Ikeda, K. et al, 1983).
This study would adding some information about supplementation BW for young laying hen to reusing available BW product in their farm or when the price of BW's cheaper than another cereal and easy to find in market. To identify the suitable ratio of CBW and research the effect of TBW for alternating wheat in laying hen diet base on the performance of young laying hence.
Figure 1: Buckwheat plant (wikipedia.org) BW's originating from the mountainous of southwestern China and introduced into Europe around the 15th century (Ohmi Ohnishi, 2004), (G. Bonafaccia et all, 1994). BW's (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) a dicotyledonous plant, belongs to the Polygonaceae family. Two types of BW are used around the world: CBW (Fagopyrum esculentum) and TBW (Fagopyrum tataricum) (G. Bonafaccia et all, 1994).Table 1. Buckwheat production in the world (tonnes) FAO, 2011 EUROPE 991,291
Republic of Kyrgyzstan 48World total 1,787,547
Which one is used depends on the production zone and mainly cultivated in the temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere (Ohmi Ohnishi, 2004). CBW is grown more and most of production from Europe 991,291 tonne, Hungary 2,350 tonne, Asian 653,846 tonne, America 142,196 tonne and less in Africa 300 tonne (table 1). TBW is grown and used in the mountainous regions, in more harsh climatic conditions and with lower product than CBW (G. Bonafaccia et all, 2003).
BW (figure 1) is dicotyledonous plant. It's a pseudo-cereal but its seed belong to cereals because of their similar use and some chemicals composition (Ohmi Ohnishi, 2004). The leaves are broad heart shaped dark green, the annual crop that reaches (60-150 cm) in height, erects plant with a single main stem is usually smooth, grooved, succulent, and hollow, several branches showy flowers bloom at the end of branches or the flower arising from the axils of the leaves. The flowers are usually white or pink ones occasionally occur, there are have five petal-like sepals and occur in two main types, the pin type has long styles and short stamens, the thrum type has short styles and long stamens (Campbell, C. G. and Gubbels, G. H. 1979). Seed hull is triangular and seed color varies from brown to gray to black, the tissue inside the hull is covered by a thin layer, this layer is green and turns reddish brown as the seed ages. The size of BW seeds variance: small seed is 4 mm, medium large is 4.5 mm, the largest is 5 mm (JevdjoviÄ‡, R. and MaletiÄ‡, R. 2003). The weight of 1,000 seeds varies between 25.4 and 28.7 grams (Bonafaccia, G. et al, 1994). It has a shallow taproot system with several branched lateral root, most of its root are concentrated in the top 25.4 cm in to the soil (Campbell, C. G. and Gubbels, G. H. 1979).
PRODUCTION OF BUCWHEAT
BW has a short growing period. It's about 10 to 12 weeks, flowering begins 5 or 6 weeks after the seed sown and continues for at least a month (Hector Valenzuela and Jody Smith, 2002). It is grown in many parts of the world, but it was never attained the status of major cereal crop from the production, because only 10 to12 % of their flowers which develop into seeds, in addition TBW husk is very difficult to remove and a bitter taste in their flour (Adachi, T. 2004), (Campbell, Clayton G. 2004). Thus, from these reasons some studies investigate to overcome breeding barriers in genus Fagopyrum. Nowaday, In some places of the northern India BW crop can sow 3 sequent times with 20 days break from the previous crop in the same plant pear year (Gupta, J.J. Yadav, B.P.S. and Hore, D.K. 2002).
CONDITION FOR PRODUCTION
BW is normally a plant of cool, moist, on sandy, drained soil, but it also grows in dry regions with very poor soils and drainage (Inayatullah Tahir and Sikandar Farooq, 1988). Their flowering is indeterminate habit. Blowing effected by high temperatures, dry winds, especially when moisture is scarce that reduces seed set and yield (Inayatullah Tahir and Sikandar Farooq, 1988), (Campbell, C. G. and Gubbels, G. H. 1979). Although BW is best adaptive plant in hard condition, should not be planted on poorly drained, saturated soils. The crop also tends to lodge when subjected to high winds or heavy rains and when grown on very fertile soils (Campbell, C. G. and Gubbels, G. H. 1979).
The plants generally do not set seed with their own flower. The pollination must occur between plants of different flower types and is usually done by insects (MaksimoviÄ‡, V. et al, 2004), the most wide spread is honeybee, averaging 35 % of all insects on flowers of BW (Kulikov, N.I. et al, 2004).
Chemicals composition were difference amount in different parts of whole BW plant. Not only BW grain which is only the highest non-NDF content (table2) in the whole plant supplementation for human and animal consumption, but in BW greens also has some useful chemicals such as CP, EE in leaves, NDF in stems. In addition, total extractable phenol-flavonois-rutin which are the antioxidant factor with the highest amount content in flower > leaves > stems and the lowest in seeds (Leiber. F. et al, 2012), (Danuta ZieliÅ„ska et al, 2012), specially, in the tops of the tree rutin was found about 100 times higher than in grains (PaulíÄková I. et al, 2004). Furthermore, The essential amino acid lysine in BW sprouts was notably greater 27 times than in BW grains and another cereals (Kim, S.L. et al, 2001). The result of variable chemicals composition in different parts of the whole BW plant was functional organ and the phenol-flavonois-rutin were synthesized in the high plant to protect the plants against UV radiation and microorganisms (Alenka GabersË‡cË‡ik et al, 2002).
Table 2. Chemical composition of BW plant (% DM)
1 Nutrition in % dry weight
2 Vitamin in mg/100g product factor
Proteins content in BW was the best-known source of high biological value proteins in the plant kingdom. The protein content in BW varies (Bonafaccia, G. et al, 1994), but it's protein higher than corn similar with wheat (table 4) and especially the essential amino acids lysine and arginine got higher percentage in protein of BW 6.22%, 8.75% compare with corn 3.32%, 4.75% and wheat 2.4%, 4.74% respectively. In addition, the protein biological value was over 90% compare with protein biological values in wheat only 55% (Eggum et al. 1981). Although protein and amino acid composition in BW lower than in soybean, some studied determined BW protein product effects stronger than soybean protein isolate (Tomotake, H. et al 2000), (Tomotake, H. et al 2002) event more activity than casein (Kayashita, J. et al, 1996), (Tomotake, H. et al 2000). Even though BW protein had high biological value, the digestibility of protein in BW grain so slow by some factors effect and their molecular structure in grain (Ikeda, K. and Kishida, M. 1993).
Table 4: Nutrition composition in BW compare with Corn, Wheat and Soybean
Amino acid % in 100g CP
Linoleic acid (18:2) 3
Linolenic acid (18:3) 3
1 Nutrition composition in BW, Corn, Soybean (Jacob, J. P. and Carter, C. A. 2008).
2 The mean of nutrition composition in spring and winter cultivars Wheat (Lasek, O. et al, 2011).
3 The % of total fatty acid.
In the research of Ikeda, S. et al (2006) reported that BW flour has a good essential mineral than cereals. In BW flour was higher level of copper, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus (table 5) compared with those in wheat flour and corn flours, it was also a good source in calcium, iron, manganese. In addition, the enzymatic digestion could digest (over 60%) three essential minerals, zinc, copper and potassium were significant difference and higher more than wheat and corn flour, other three essential minerals, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus could be less absorption but they similar proportion with wheat flour and corn flour only two mineral iron, manganese little lower adsorption than wheat flour and corn flour. Thus, BW not only has high essential minerals content but their minerals also bioavailability for absorption in gut as zinc, copper, potassium, manganese).
Table 5: Contents of eight essential minerals in BW flour and other cereal flours mg/100g flour (Ikeda, S. et al, 2006)
1 The carbohydrate % DM
1 Mineral mg/100g product factor
Dehulled seeds contained 2.6 to 3.2% total lipids comprised of 81 to 85% neutral lipids, to 11% phospholipids and 3 to 5% glycolipid (Mazza, G. 1993). There was a prevalence of unsaturated fatty acids are good fatty acid composition (g/100 g total fatty acids) Oleic (C18:1) 37.0 - 35.2, Linoleic (C18:2) 39.0 - 36.6, Linolenic (C18:3) 1.0 - 0.7, Eicosaenoic acid (C20:1) 2.3 - 2.0) (G. Bonafaccia et al, 2003)
Carbohydrate in BW grain so much different compare with other cereals. Crude fiber content in BW (table 4) was about ten times higher than corn, five times higher than wheat, two times higher than soybean. The main point of dietary fibre in BW products was lignin, cellulose and low in hemicelluloses different compare with cereal bran build up by 60% hemicelluloses in dietary fibre (Amarowicz, R. and Fornal, L. 1987). Lignin mostly present in hull 32.05% a little lower in grain 10.58% but in the flour form had much lower cellulose and lignin and increase starch content (table 3) than in other products form (Amarowicz, R. and Fornal, L. 1987), (Bonafaccia, G. et al, 2003). So, BW content very high crude fiber than other cereals but in flour form is the good way to reduce CF, increases the carbohydrate quality also the good way to mixing feedstuff for dietary animal.
Good content of vitamins B group in BW grain. The vitamin B6 (table3) was higher than vitamin B2 and vitamin B6 content in BW milling products. Vitamin B group was mostly composition in TBW bran more than in CBW bran and greater than vitamin in grain also in flour (Bonafaccia, G. et al, 2003). With the bioactivity of vitamin B6 effect (pyridoxine) reducing blood plasma homocysteine levels (Schnyder, G. et al. 2001) and an excellent protein source, TBW became the healthful feedstuff (Bonafaccia, G. et al, 2003).
FLAVONOID and RUTIN
There were six flavonoids in BW grain but mostly they content in hull and it could be sequenced in a following way: vitexin < isovitexin < orientin < isoorientin < rutin < quercetin< BHT (buthyl-hydroxytoluen), in addition BW groat only two chemical like rutin and isovitexin but rutin more dominate than (Dietrych-Szostak, D. and Oleszek, W. 1999). The flavonoid content respectively average of 387 and 1314 mg/100g and rutin about 47 and 77 mg/100g in the seed and hull (Oomah D.B. Mazza G. 1996). The flavonoids and rutin in BW changing depend on conditions of their growth and it was increased in 2-3 and more times at hot and droughty weather in comparison to a cool and wet condition (A.P. Lahanov et al, 2004). Although flavonoid was a main of phenol and flavonoid had a strong relation with rutin with dominated in BW grain, rutin seem to be irrelative antioxidant activity (Oomah D.B. Mazza G. 1996), (Gulpinar, A.R. et al, 2011).
BW is good nutrition source storage provide for human and animal but it also content some allergic. BW allergic patients frequently suffer from symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, angioedema, and gastrointestinal, but it was not common type of reaction, about (4%) compare with allergy of soybean (7%) peanut (7%), on this 4% allergy was mostly on children with reason was the 24 kilodalton protein in BW is a strong candidate to be major allergen and very specific binding to IgE antibodies of the patients' sera, it could be find in both Tartary and CBW like TB24kD (Wang Z. H. et al, 2004), (Jeong-Lim Kim et al, 2004).
Fagopyrin induces photosensitization in light-skinned. Fagopyrin is a polyphenol toxic present in BW, it can induce photosensitization produce the inflammatory in skin by a photochemical reaction between a photosensitive factor and appropriate radiation incident on the skin (Eguchi, K. et al, 2009). Although fagopyrin is a allegy, it is a anticancerogenic effect, which was isolated for the first time in 1943 from the blossoms of the red flowering variety of F. Esculentum, a plant known since 1833 (O. Sytar et al. 2013). It content large amount of fagopyrins in leaves, flower, small amounts the stems, hulls very less in groats (Eguchi, K. et al, 2009). Thus, Causes of sunlight sensitivity effect only after the ingestion large amounts of the green parts of BW (Hinneburg I.et al. 2005).
Tannin is the anti-nutrition factor. It's about 0.31 - 0.48 (% d.m) content in BW grain (BONAFACCIA, G. et al, 1994). It's an inhibit enzymes (a-amylase), more negative influence on amino acid digestibility, and they are strongly astringent in taste (Zlata Luthar, 1992). However, Tannin effect on antibacterial function and antitumor, antivirus and antimutagenes functions (Mori, A. et al, 1987).
Trypsin inhibitor fraction in BW represented approximately 3.3% of the applied proteins and it can decrease the effect by germination form (Ikeda, K. et al, 1984).
BW is a good source for nutrient and antioxidant. However, BW has low digestibility, it may be defined by two factors: the inhibitory potency of endogenous anti-nutrition, such as protease inhibitor and tannin, and the susceptibility of the protein to proteolytic action, BW is a low digestibility compare with cereals, which may be defined by two factors: the inhibitory potency of endogenous antinutrients, such as protease inhibitor and tannin, and the susceptibility of the protein to proteolytic action (Ikeda, K. et al, 1991). In addition, There was a difference in susceptibility to proteolytic action between BW proteins and some other proteins, with BW proteins being less digestible by pepsin and there is a relationship between the digestibility of BW proteins and their molecular structure is discussed Ikeda, K. and Kishida, M. 1993. Other more with high CF (table 6) content it also a reason to low protein digestibility and other nutritions.
Hagels, H. et al (1995) reposted that the good temperate and humidity for storage BW seed in this research were 15oC and about 12 %, should store BW seeds at low moisture content and low temperature, in this case, the moisture content is an important factor to be reduced than storage temperature, with 1% drop in moisture content has the equivalent effect of 2.87Â°C reduction of storage temperature. In addition, seeds stored at the higher moisture content and, or at the same moisture and higher temperature showed more rapid decline, also the percentage germination declined with increased storage period. JevdjoviÄ‡1, R. and MaletiÄ‡, R. (2003) researched that BW seed stored up to two years also good production, but seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality, and seed stored over three years (could not be used for planning) should be used in nutrition with previous analysis of the quality of flour, seed stored over five years had no qualitative, and therefore no value. In addition, the size of BW seed fraction determines the increase of germination energy and germination. Thus, that smaller fraction rapidly losses its quality and the medium fraction maintains the quality for the longest period of storage, only the large seed should be used for planting (JevdjoviÄ‡1, R. and MaletiÄ‡, R. 2003).
BW has been a good nutrition source supply for human food for long time ago. It's more using and popular in Japan than one hundred years ago average Japanese consumes 32 kg of BW flour per year with 90% as noodles (SUZUKI, I. 2003).
BW sprouts had a very soft and mild flavor and a slightly crisp texture, furthermore BW sprouts did not have been flavor as soybean sprouts but had a very attractive aroma, so the BW sprouts had used as a fresh vegetable, salad and or for various other purposes including natural vegetable juice material (Kim, S.L. et al, 2001). Furthermore, Some research discovered the of the BW leaf and flower are rich in phenolic compounds and fibre (table 2) suppressed the body weight gain and lowered plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations with a simultaneous increase in faecal lipids in rats fed a high-fat diet (Lee, J.S. et al, 2010).
Some researches demonstrated BW is a good source for the health. BW protein extract (BWPE) effected on gallstone formation and plasma cholesterol (Tomotake, H. et al 2000), fat pad weights and activities of enzymes relating to lipid metabolism, it also caused increases fat and nitrogen in fecal it mean that the BWPE reaction to lower activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes and to lower digestibility of fat and protein (Kayashita, J. et al, 1996).
Not only in human consumption, BW also helped farming process. BW plant was green manure to improve nutrition value also antioxidant for soil and control weeds and in the field with a history of wireworms (click beetle larva) BW rotation can reduce risk for sweetpotatoes (Chris Gunter, 2005). Flowering BW at least 20 days to allow provides a food for bees and pollen BW is a good source for honey production.
BW grew a long time ago using as a food for human and animal but very little report also information detail about eating value.
BW straw can mix with barley or wheat straw stored for winter and spring season for feeding ruminant (Scheucher, S. 2004).
BW grain can be used in place of cereal grains for ruminant but its DM, energy and CP are less digestible than these nutrients in Barley and has about 85% of the digestible energy content of Barley, allowance consume the total daily 3.6 kg in case of fed dry-rolled BW form (Nicholson, J. W. G.,1976).
For rabbit growing diet BW (Fagopyrum esculentum) grain could use 60% replace for maize, wheat without any changing compare with basic diet (Tor-Agbidye et al, 1990).
For pig diet, BW can be utilized as a replacement for wheat or barley 50% in diets for growing pigs from 20 to 60 kg with high feed intake, more average daily gain than basic and other level of BW in diet (Anderson, D. M. and Bowland, J. P, 1984).
BW also a good nutrient source for avian. With diet 30% BW grain replace for wheat and rice bran in broiler diet from 21 days old to slaughter without any effect on growth and development (Gupta, J.J. et al 2002). BW with 60% replace for corn and soybean form start to finish (six weeks) in broiler diet had no significant different effect on final body weight gain, but the feed conversion increase when increase more level of BW in diet (Jacob, J. P. and Carter, C. A. 2008).
For old laying hens 74 weeks old with BW bran (+30%) in diet used for replace corn (-20%) and soybean meal (-10%), the result reported that BW bran could increase feed-intake, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units (Maria Novella Benvenuti et al, 2012). However, The research based on a short time after an adaptation period (14 days), the performance was monitored for 14 days, so maybe it would be quite a little different the long time research than.
BW is not a cereal but it used like cereal, with a short growing period, in some place they can growing three times per year. Although get a high protein biological value and benefic aminoacid, mineral and protein, fatty acid, vitamin B group especial vitamin B6 in bran, BW seed digestion lower than cereal. Beside excellent protein source, vitamin B group BW content a high anitioxidant supply for human to decrease risk health and supply for animal can reduce medicine using, increase economic and it provide good nutrition for human food indirectly.
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